The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (library@tonkintaylor.co.nz) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.

How the best ideas win: the role of collaboration in successful innovation

Author

Sarah Kinsman, Chris Perks, Peter Millar

Source

Tonkin+ Taylor 2016 White Paper

Year

2016

This white paper describes two of the most important features leading to the success of transport infrastructure alliances and partnerships based on insight from T+T’s experienced transport leads, Peter Millar and Chris Perks. Millar is a principal geotechnical engineer and past managing director of T+T who’s worked on dozens of transport projects and led four transport alliances. Perks is a specialist transport project manager who’s worked on major British transport projects for Mouchel in the UK and Dubai, and for MWH in Australia. He migrated to New Zealand six years ago and worked for the NZTA before coming to T+T. Their thinking, based on years of experience and success, is that large-scale collaboration is essential to achieving success for clients. Successful innovation is the result of listening to and then evaluating and implementing ideas in a collaborative process. It requires trust and a willingness to evaluate ideas from many sources. The link between collaboration and innovation is illustrated using examples from recent NZTA successes.

Liquefaction vulnerability increase at North New Brighton due to subsidence, sea level rise and reduction in thickness of the non-liquefying layer

Author

Monk, Christopher B. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Hughes, Matthew & Villeneuve, Marlene (2016)

Source

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Vol. 49(4) December 2016

Year

2016

The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) of 2010 - 2011 caused widespread liquefaction related land damage to the city of Christchurch. This paper addresses the impact the CES had on the eastern Christchurch suburb of North New Brighton with emphasis on the ground condition at the time of the initial 4 September 2010 earthquake, as well as subsidence caused by the CES, and the future potential for increased liquefaction vulnerability due to Sea Level Rise (SLR). 
Subsidence at North New Brighton accumulated throughout the CES due to a reduction in volume of the soil profile through liquefaction; and overall settlement due to regional tectonic subsidence. The total amount of subsidence caused by the CES at North New Brighton was a much as 1 m in some places and this has changed the relationship between the position of the ground surface and the top of the groundwater table. A reduction in the thickness of the non-liquefying layer has been shown to increase the vulnerability of the soil profile to liquefaction related land damage during earthquake events. As a coastal suburb, North New Brighton is vulnerable to the impact of SLR and this paper considers the response of the groundwater table to rising sea level and the influence this will have on the thickness of the non-liquefying layer and liquefaction vulnerability.

Planning for the NOW society - smart water and wastewater systems and their implementation in New Zealand

Author

Reed, Charlotte , McIntosh, Glen & Croft, Simon F. (2016)

Source

6th NAMS Advanced Asset Management Forum, 2016, Wellington

Year

2016

Modern society has created a culture which expects instant information. Digital media and applications have adapted to fuel and feed this desire, which can be seen in everything from the Fitbit to our demand for up to the minute news and sports information streams. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, as infrastructure providers we frustratingly continue to provide our planners and customers with outdated information.
What would it take for our customers to be able to view their water, gas and power meter readings in real time on a phone app? For entire wastewater networks to become ‘smart’ enough to tell operators that the sewer is blocked or about to surcharge? Some such capabilities are already available in other countries but for many New Zealand Councils this level of customer service and asset management capability may feel like decades away.
Technologies exist here in New Zealand that will shortly enable a step change in the way utilities and customers capture, use and disseminate information. This paper will draw on international case studies and showcase emerging technologies such as Celium, a low cost long range low power wireless network, which have the capability to bring customer service and asset management into the NOW.

Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Appendices

Author

Russell, James ; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd

Source

Client report for Chapman Tripp on behalf of the Earthquake Commission – Appendices

Year

2015

Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Report

Author

Russell, James ; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd

Source

Client report for Chapman Tripp on behalf of the Earthquake Commission – Report

Year

2015

All dessed up and no place to flow : a $25 million outfall

Author

Basheer, Sarah & Smedley, Richard (2016)

Source

Stormwater Conference, 2016, Nelson (Water New Zealand)

Year

2016

A major stormwater upgrade to the pipe network passing through the Ports of Auckland
land was required to reduce upstream flooding and to replace aging infrastructure. Without the 
upgrade, drainage improvements to the upstream network (which have already been constructed) would 
increase downstream flood risk. Indicative capital costs of the upgrade are approximately $25 
million.

Due to construction complexity and hydraulic limitations, a range of design options were considered 
by an Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) group that would reduce disruption to the port whilst 
providing improved flood resilience. A risk based approach was used to establish the costs and 
benefits of the options, so that a realistic hydraulic performance objective could be established 
by Auckland Council for the ECI group.

The risk based approach considered the effects of a range of design storms, tailwater levels, and 
sea level rise for the different options. The outcomes of the assessment were used to create a 
business case that needed to provide both value to existing ratepayers, resilience to future 
changes in climate and consider the effects of disruption to the Ports of Auckland.

This paper will focus on the risk based assessment and business case development that formed the 
recommendation to the ECI group. It will include discussion on the quantitative risk assessment 
including the flood damage assessment, and the economic and qualitative viewpoints encountered 
along the way

Challenges designing wet services for Pukeahu National War Memorial Park

Author

Chryssafis, Costas , Everett, Carys & Knappstein, Michelle A. (2016)

Source

Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 2016, Rotorua

Year

2016

The Pukeahu National War Memorial Park was constructed as the Government’s major project to commemorate the centenary of the First World War. In order to build the park, construction of an underpass (the Arras Tunnel) was required to accommodate State Highway 1 (SH1). The Arras Tunnel now carries SH1 traffic west, passing under the Park. This project was completed on budget and ahead of time by the Memorial Park Alliance (the Alliance) driven by effective collaboration between the Alliance (comprising client, contractor and designers) and key stakeholders. This paper outlines some of the challenges, design solutions, and working methods that were important to the success of the wet services design. The key threads that are covered in this paper include:

  • Managing a tight urban site with complex and multiple services
  • Protection measures for the Tory Street heritage sewer
  • Developing a solution for the stormwater overland flows from surrounding streets that enter the tunnel
  • Application of sustainable urban drainage approaches for stormwater management in the park
  • Resilience of wet services for the Home of Compassion Crèche during a seismic event
  • Considering safety in design for construction and operation of assets
  • Collaborative team approach.

Comparison of CPT-based simplified liquefaction assessment methodologies based on the Canterbury dataset

Author

van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Lacrosse, Virginie; Russell, James; Simpson, Jenny; Malan, Pierre

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington, 2015. Paper 082

Year

2015

The four most commonly used simplified Cone Penetration Test (CPT) based liquefaction triggering methods in engineering practice are Robertson and Wride (1998) as set out in Youd et al. (2001), Seed et al. (2003) as set out in Moss et al. (2006a), Idriss and Boulanger (2008) and Boulanger and Idriss (2014). This paper compares these four liquefaction triggering methods on a regional basis by calculating the associated Liquefaction Severity Number (LSN) for around 15,000 CPTs across Christchurch and correlating these calculated values with the liquefaction-induced land damage observations throughout the 2010 to 2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). The results show that all four methods provide reasonable correlations between observed land damage and the LSN liquefaction vulnerability parameter. Areas with none-to-minor observed liquefaction-induced land damage generally have low calculated LSN values and areas with moderate-to-severe liquefactioninduced land damage generally have high calculated LSN values. More detailed examination of the results shows that the Boulanger and Idriss (2014) liquefaction triggering method provides the best overall fit to the observed land damage for each of the main events across the CES and also provides the best differentiation between sites with no observed liquefaction-induced land damage at the ground surface and sites with observed liquefaction-induced land damage.

The effect of sea level rise on liquefaction vulnerability: a case study for consideration of development on coastal plains and reclamations

Author

Quilter, Peter W.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reinen-Hamill, Richard

Source

Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 2015, Auckland

Year

2015

The 2011-2012 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) has highlighted the need for greater understanding of liquefaction and its effect on development in coastal plains and reclaimed areas. It has also provided the ability to see how projected Sea Level Rise (SLR) is likely to affect liquefaction vulnerability. Published research [6] indicates the thickness of surface non-liquefying material or the "crust", as having a profound influence on the likelihood of land and building damage. Soil needs to be saturated for it to liquefy and full saturation generally occurs in the soils located beneath the groundwater table. In granular soil deposits (susceptible to liquefaction), the depth to groundwater primarily dictates the non-liquefying crust thickness. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report [5] indicates global mean sea level rises between 200 mm and 450 mm within the next 50 years are possible and substantially greater rises could be expected within the next 100 years. These SLRs will result in rises in groundwater levels in coastal plains. This paper reviews liquefaction vulnerability mapping of residential areas in Christchurch, and presents vulnerability maps for different levels of earthquake shaking based on current and revised groundwater levels reflecting SLR of 0.5m and 1.0m. The change in the percentage of the residential building portfolio in eastern Christchurch likely to experience moderate to major liquefaction related damage for the different earthquake shaking has been assessed for each groundwater scenario. The implications of SLR are commonly considered for inundation, erosion and tsunami risk. Little mention to date has been made regarding the increased level of risk that SLR will have on liquefaction in geological coastal settings similar to those of Christchurch, including recent coastal plains and reclaimed land. Because SLR increases the vulnerability to liquefaction, SLR effects should be taken into account when assessing this hazard.

Adaptable analysis : different approaches that lead to the same results

Author

Pennington, Mark (2016)

Source

Stormwater Conference, 2016, Nelson (Water New Zealand)

Year

2016

Analysis of historic records has been, and will continue to be, a reliable means of gaining an 
understanding of surface water system behavior. If the design condition under consideration falls within the envelope of historic records, then it is possible to have a high degree of confidence in the analysis results used for design.
However, it is often the case that the set of historic records at a specific site is either 
non-existent or does not envelope the range of events for which the design is required. In such 
cases a designer will still seek to have a high degree of confidence in the analyses, and 
alternative approaches are required.
Such alternative approaches include extrapolation (of observations), detailed analysis using 
established hydraulic principles with detailed input data (modelling) and sensitivity assessment 
using statistical and other means. All of these approaches are intended for the same end point, 
this being a high degree in confidence in results that are to be used in design.
In this paper these approaches are benchmarked against each other using a case study. The results 
show that in some cases there are alternative approaches to the detailed hydrological and hydraulic 
modelling approach that result in the same end point conclusions being able to be reached 
(confidence in results). These alternative approaches will be demonstrated, and in this paper the 
relative time inputs to them are discussed using the case study examples.
Keywords: Modelling; Stormwater; Flood level prediction.

Impact of rainwater tanks on the levels of service for water supply in Auckland

Author

Klein, Roseline , Lester, A. & Reed, Charlotte (2016)

Source

Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 2016, Rotorua

Year

2016

Rainwater tanks are a viable alternative water resource option used around the world. Their effectiveness is a function of local climate, uptake, roof and tank size and demand characteristics. Watercare carried out an assessment of rainwater tank potential in the context of the Auckland supply-demand balance to compare them with other water resource options.
The assessment considered their benefits at Watercare’s two relevant Levels of Service, which drive the selection of water sources in Auckland. Ambitious uptake rate scenarios for new and existing properties were developed, which modelled between 23% and 66% of Auckland households having a tank installed by 2050. A synthesized 1000 year rainfall sequence was applied to determine the conjunctive yield of the tanks and Watercare’s lake supply system for the different scenarios of 
rainwater tank use.
The work modelled a range of scenarios including the implementation of a programme installing large rainwater tanks on a widespread basis throughout Auckland. Outputs demonstrated that the most favourable scenario would result in tanks supplying up to 16% of the forecast demand at the drought level of service and 35% at the peak level of service. The capital cost of implementation of such a programme would be of four times that of a river source able to supply 100% of the forecast demand 
at both levels of service. This paper solely addresses the water resource benefits of rainwater tanks; any wider benefits are excluded.

The effect of subsidence on liquefaction vulnerability following the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence

Author

Russell, James; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Rogers, Nick W.; Lacrosse, Virginie; Jacka, Michael E.

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington 2015 (ANZ2015) Paper 81

Year

2015

During the 2010 – 2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), the June 2011 earthquake event caused relatively moderate levels of ground shaking. However, in this event, the incidence and severity of liquefaction-induced land damage was significantly greater in some areas than was anticipated relative to the severity of land damage caused by earlier events in the CES. It was observed that the increased incidence and severity of this type of land damage was spatially correlated with the occurrence of ground subsidence from earlier events due to volumetric densification, liquefaction ejecta, lateral spreading and tectonic movement. These observations formed the basis of a hypothesis that the reduced depth to groundwater as a result of ground surface subsidence effectively reduces the thickness of the non-liquefying crust and that the reduced crust thickness is less able to suppress liquefaction effects at the ground surface resulting in increased vulnerability to liquefaction-induced land damage. This paper illustrates the occurrence of increased liquefaction vulnerability with reference to both to qualitative and quantitative data collected as part of an extensive assessment of the effects of ground surface subsidence of the land in Canterbury. Analysis using two liquefaction vulnerability parameters, namely the Ishihara (1985) criteria and the Liquefaction Severity Number (LSN), quantifies the increase in liquefaction vulnerability caused by the ground surface subsidence.

Request Document

This document "" is copyright therefore we are required to ask for your name and we will email the document to you.