The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (email@example.com) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.
How the best ideas win: the role of collaboration in successful innovation
Liquefaction vulnerability increase at North New Brighton due to subsidence, sea level rise and reduction in thickness of the non-liquefying layer
The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) of 2010 - 2011 caused widespread liquefaction related land damage to the city of Christchurch. This paper addresses the impact the CES had on the eastern Christchurch suburb of North New Brighton with emphasis on the ground condition at the time of the initial 4 September 2010 earthquake, as well as subsidence caused by the CES, and the future potential for increased liquefaction vulnerability due to Sea Level Rise (SLR).
Subsidence at North New Brighton accumulated throughout the CES due to a reduction in volume of the soil profile through liquefaction; and overall settlement due to regional tectonic subsidence. The total amount of subsidence caused by the CES at North New Brighton was a much as 1 m in some places and this has changed the relationship between the position of the ground surface and the top of the groundwater table. A reduction in the thickness of the non-liquefying layer has been shown to increase the vulnerability of the soil profile to liquefaction related land damage during earthquake events. As a coastal suburb, North New Brighton is vulnerable to the impact of SLR and this paper considers the response of the groundwater table to rising sea level and the influence this will have on the thickness of the non-liquefying layer and liquefaction vulnerability.
Planning for the NOW society - smart water and wastewater systems and their implementation in New Zealand
Modern society has created a culture which expects instant information. Digital media and applications have adapted to fuel and feed this desire, which can be seen in everything from the Fitbit to our demand for up to the minute news and sports information streams. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, as infrastructure providers we frustratingly continue to provide our planners and customers with outdated information.
What would it take for our customers to be able to view their water, gas and power meter readings in real time on a phone app? For entire wastewater networks to become ‘smart’ enough to tell operators that the sewer is blocked or about to surcharge? Some such capabilities are already available in other countries but for many New Zealand Councils this level of customer service and asset management capability may feel like decades away.
Technologies exist here in New Zealand that will shortly enable a step change in the way utilities and customers capture, use and disseminate information. This paper will draw on international case studies and showcase emerging technologies such as Celium, a low cost long range low power wireless network, which have the capability to bring customer service and asset management into the NOW.
Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Appendices
Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Report
All dessed up and no place to flow : a $25 million outfall
A major stormwater upgrade to the pipe network passing through the Ports of Auckland
land was required to reduce upstream flooding and to replace aging infrastructure. Without the
upgrade, drainage improvements to the upstream network (which have already been constructed) would
increase downstream flood risk. Indicative capital costs of the upgrade are approximately $25
Due to construction complexity and hydraulic limitations, a range of design options were considered
by an Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) group that would reduce disruption to the port whilst
providing improved flood resilience. A risk based approach was used to establish the costs and
benefits of the options, so that a realistic hydraulic performance objective could be established
by Auckland Council for the ECI group.
The risk based approach considered the effects of a range of design storms, tailwater levels, and
sea level rise for the different options. The outcomes of the assessment were used to create a
business case that needed to provide both value to existing ratepayers, resilience to future
changes in climate and consider the effects of disruption to the Ports of Auckland.
This paper will focus on the risk based assessment and business case development that formed the
recommendation to the ECI group. It will include discussion on the quantitative risk assessment
including the flood damage assessment, and the economic and qualitative viewpoints encountered
along the way
Challenges designing wet services for Pukeahu National War Memorial Park
The Pukeahu National War Memorial Park was constructed as the Government’s major project to commemorate the centenary of the First World War. In order to build the park, construction of an underpass (the Arras Tunnel) was required to accommodate State Highway 1 (SH1). The Arras Tunnel now carries SH1 traffic west, passing under the Park. This project was completed on budget and ahead of time by the Memorial Park Alliance (the Alliance) driven by effective collaboration between the Alliance (comprising client, contractor and designers) and key stakeholders. This paper outlines some of the challenges, design solutions, and working methods that were important to the success of the wet services design. The key threads that are covered in this paper include:
- Managing a tight urban site with complex and multiple services
- Protection measures for the Tory Street heritage sewer
- Developing a solution for the stormwater overland flows from surrounding streets that enter the tunnel
- Application of sustainable urban drainage approaches for stormwater management in the park
- Resilience of wet services for the Home of Compassion Crèche during a seismic event
- Considering safety in design for construction and operation of assets
- Collaborative team approach.
Comparison of CPT-based simplified liquefaction assessment methodologies based on the Canterbury dataset
The effect of sea level rise on liquefaction vulnerability: a case study for consideration of development on coastal plains and reclamations
Adaptable analysis : different approaches that lead to the same results
Analysis of historic records has been, and will continue to be, a reliable means of gaining an
understanding of surface water system behavior. If the design condition under consideration falls within the envelope of historic records, then it is possible to have a high degree of confidence in the analysis results used for design.
However, it is often the case that the set of historic records at a specific site is either
non-existent or does not envelope the range of events for which the design is required. In such
cases a designer will still seek to have a high degree of confidence in the analyses, and
alternative approaches are required.
Such alternative approaches include extrapolation (of observations), detailed analysis using
established hydraulic principles with detailed input data (modelling) and sensitivity assessment
using statistical and other means. All of these approaches are intended for the same end point,
this being a high degree in confidence in results that are to be used in design.
In this paper these approaches are benchmarked against each other using a case study. The results
show that in some cases there are alternative approaches to the detailed hydrological and hydraulic
modelling approach that result in the same end point conclusions being able to be reached
(confidence in results). These alternative approaches will be demonstrated, and in this paper the
relative time inputs to them are discussed using the case study examples.
Keywords: Modelling; Stormwater; Flood level prediction.
Impact of rainwater tanks on the levels of service for water supply in Auckland
Rainwater tanks are a viable alternative water resource option used around the world. Their effectiveness is a function of local climate, uptake, roof and tank size and demand characteristics. Watercare carried out an assessment of rainwater tank potential in the context of the Auckland supply-demand balance to compare them with other water resource options.
The assessment considered their benefits at Watercare’s two relevant Levels of Service, which drive the selection of water sources in Auckland. Ambitious uptake rate scenarios for new and existing properties were developed, which modelled between 23% and 66% of Auckland households having a tank installed by 2050. A synthesized 1000 year rainfall sequence was applied to determine the conjunctive yield of the tanks and Watercare’s lake supply system for the different scenarios of
rainwater tank use.
The work modelled a range of scenarios including the implementation of a programme installing large rainwater tanks on a widespread basis throughout Auckland. Outputs demonstrated that the most favourable scenario would result in tanks supplying up to 16% of the forecast demand at the drought level of service and 35% at the peak level of service. The capital cost of implementation of such a programme would be of four times that of a river source able to supply 100% of the forecast demand
at both levels of service. This paper solely addresses the water resource benefits of rainwater tanks; any wider benefits are excluded.
The effect of subsidence on liquefaction vulnerability following the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence
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