The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (library@tonkintaylor.co.nz) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.

Geotechnical Monitoring and Management of TBM (EPB) Tunnelling Induced Settlement: The case of Waterview Connection Project Tunnel

Author

Koumoutsakos, D. , France, S. & Cartwright, Stuart (2017)

Source

16th Australasain Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

This paper presents measurements of tunnelling induced settlements collected during the
construction of the Waterview Connection project. The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection
project involves the construction of 5 km of motorway to complete Auckland’s Western Ring Route.
Half of this new link includes twin 14.5 m diameter mainline tunnels constructed by Earth Pressure
Balance (EPB) Tunnel Boring Machine with 16 sequentially excavated cross-passages. Over most of
the tunnelled length the excavation is through extremely weak to weak interbedded sandstones and
siltstones of the East Coast Bays Formation (ECBF) overlain by weathered ECBF and alluvium.
However, tunnelling was also undertaken through stronger, volcanoclastic sandstone, and, through
alluvial soils at low cover. In the following paper the instrumentation methodology, monitoring regime
and analysed results are presented. The attention is given mainly to the monitoring data recorded
under free field conditions during and after the construction of the mainline tunnels. Settlement
readings are back-analysed using the classical Gaussian empirical predictions, in traverse arrays, and
at particular sections in longitudinal direction, providing a detailed description of the EPB tunnelling
performance under varied geotechnical conditions. The use of TBM calibration zones in selected
green field sites and how that data helped optimize TBM performance in relation to ground effects, is
discussed. Finally the influence of different parameters, such as tunnel depth, overlying geological
layers and tunnel face pressure, to the induced settlement, estimated ground loss and the shape of
settlement trough is investigated.

Fissure grouting and rock defect characterisation for the Waterview cross passage tunnels

Author

Maclean, Hamish , Cartwright, Stuart & Giauque, A. (2017)

Source

16th Australasian Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection project in Auckland, New Zealand
involved the construction of a new 5km long, three lane motorway with twin, 2.4km long, three lane
tunnels up to 35m deep beneath urban Auckland. Pre-excavation fissure grouting was undertaken to
limit the inflow of groundwater into a number of the cross passage tunnel excavations. Investigation
and characterisation of rock mass defects at each cross passage ensured that fissure grouting was
only undertaken at cross passages to be excavated through highly permeable rock. This paper
outlines the geology of the tunnel alignment, the investigations carried out to characterise the rock
mass defects and the process followed to identify ‘at risk’ cross passages to be grouted. The grout mix
design and the grouting methodology are also discussed. Results and observations from the preexcavation
fissure grouting operation are presented and conclusions drawn as to the suitability of this
technique for the local ground conditions.

How the best ideas win: the role of collaboration in successful innovation

Author

Sarah Kinsman, Chris Perks, Peter Millar

Source

Tonkin+ Taylor 2016 White Paper

Year

2016

This white paper describes two of the most important features leading to the success of transport infrastructure alliances and partnerships based on insight from T+T’s experienced transport leads, Peter Millar and Chris Perks. Millar is a principal geotechnical engineer and past managing director of T+T who’s worked on dozens of transport projects and led four transport alliances. Perks is a specialist transport project manager who’s worked on major British transport projects for Mouchel in the UK and Dubai, and for MWH in Australia. He migrated to New Zealand six years ago and worked for the NZTA before coming to T+T. Their thinking, based on years of experience and success, is that large-scale collaboration is essential to achieving success for clients. Successful innovation is the result of listening to and then evaluating and implementing ideas in a collaborative process. It requires trust and a willingness to evaluate ideas from many sources. The link between collaboration and innovation is illustrated using examples from recent NZTA successes.

Challenges designing wet services for Pukeahu National War Memorial Park

Author

Chryssafis, Costas , Everett, Carys & Knappstein, Michelle A. (2016)

Source

Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 2016, Rotorua

Year

2016

The Pukeahu National War Memorial Park was constructed as the Government’s major project to commemorate the centenary of the First World War. In order to build the park, construction of an underpass (the Arras Tunnel) was required to accommodate State Highway 1 (SH1). The Arras Tunnel now carries SH1 traffic west, passing under the Park. This project was completed on budget and ahead of time by the Memorial Park Alliance (the Alliance) driven by effective collaboration between the Alliance (comprising client, contractor and designers) and key stakeholders. This paper outlines some of the challenges, design solutions, and working methods that were important to the success of the wet services design. The key threads that are covered in this paper include:

  • Managing a tight urban site with complex and multiple services
  • Protection measures for the Tory Street heritage sewer
  • Developing a solution for the stormwater overland flows from surrounding streets that enter the tunnel
  • Application of sustainable urban drainage approaches for stormwater management in the park
  • Resilience of wet services for the Home of Compassion Crèche during a seismic event
  • Considering safety in design for construction and operation of assets
  • Collaborative team approach.

Waterview Connection Tunnels: Engineering Geology Assessment of East Coast Bays Formation from Investigation through to Construction

Author

Cartwright, Stuart , Koumoutsakos, D. , Hill, B. & Morrison, Conor W. (2017)

Source

16th Australasian Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection project in Auckland, New Zealand
involved the construction of a new 5km long, three lane motorway with twin, 2.4km long, three lane
tunnels up to 35m deep beneath urban Auckland. The mainline tunnels were constructed using a 14.5m
diameter Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). Sixteen cross-passages up to 12m in length with diameters
ranging from 6m to 8.5m were constructed using the Sequential Excavation Method (SEM) between the
two mainline tunnels. Tunnelling was undertaken in ground typical of the East Coast Bays Formation
and comprised extremely weak to weak interbedded sandstone and siltstone varying in degrees of
cementation from uncemented (grain-locked) sands to well-cemented siltstones and coarse-grained
volcaniclastic sandstones of the Parnell Grit Member. The Project was subject to detailed investigations
from concept design through to TBM and SEM tunnelling, with particular attention given to intact rock
characteristics, rock structure, groundwater and ground behaviour. The ground was mapped, RMR
recorded and the rock mass classified according to GSI during each TBM maintenance intervention and
SEM tunnelling advance. This paper summarises the results of these engineering geology assessments
and discusses the ground conditions prevalent when localised over excavation or convergence was
observed.

Integral bridge foundation pile design in layered soil and rock

Author

Zou, Julie M.; Korte, Neil; Maclean, Hamish

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference Wellington 2015 (ANZ2015) Paper 50

Year

2015

An integral bridge has no movement joints over its span and a long-spanning integral bridge subjects its foundation piles to large lateral loads as the bridge deck expands and contracts. This is especially true when these piles are founded in very stiff materials at shallow depths, such as the basalt and sandstones encountered at the Great North Road Interchange (GNRI) of the NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection project in Auckland, New Zealand. Construction of bridges at the GNRI included 51 reinforced concrete pile foundations up to 2.1m in diameter. The sensitivity of the pile to the depth of stiff material was found to be in the order of plus or minus one pile diameter although this is dependent on the structural model subgrade reaction spring spacing. Installation of steel casings to create annuluses was required at several pile locations to relieve excessive loads due to soil interaction. Estimating rock levels at the likely maximum depth may be unconservative for integral bridges due to larger bending moments and shear forces attracted by the pile if the rock level is later proved to be shallower. This paper describes the pile foundation design, construction methodology and the related construction issues of integral bridge foundations at the Great North Road Interchange.

Waitangi Wharf and Port Upgrade – Providing a critical lifeline at the edge of New Zealand

Author

Foster, Mark , Shand, Tom D. & Bakker, Pieter (2017)

Source

Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 2017, Cairns

Year

2017

One of our most remote communities, the Chatham Islands, sits 800km off New Zealand’s east coast and is home to 600 people. The islands are serviced by a port which provides a lifeline for the community through the provision of every-day goods and export earnings. The port is at the end of its structural life and significant upgrades are necessary. The Waitangi Wharf Upgrade, a project of some $58 million, involves reclamation, dredging and the construction of a large breakwater. The NZ Dept. of Internal Affairs requested that the Memorial Park Alliance comprising NZTA, HEB, Downer, Tonkin + Taylor and AECOM deliver upgrade works.
The project progressed from concept design, through consenting and detailed design within 12 months; an extremely tight timeframe for a project of this scale and complexity. Extensive community engagement was undertaken throughout the process including requirements at the port and surrounding areas, existing coastal processes and likely effects of the development and options for social and environmental improvements. This built trust and established relationships, very important factors for a project this size impacting on a very small community (i.e. the construction team increased the total island population by 6%).
This paper presents an overview of the project, and the unique challenges and lessons learned by working in such a remote environment, including:
• The relative importance of the project to its community reframed port activities by highlighting the critical importance of port infrastructure We consider that there is a huge, albeit complex, opportunity for the industry to more strongly connect communities to their ports for the benefit of the industry;
• How we must be sensitive to the communities in which we work, and strive to build strong relationships for everyone’s benefit – particularly so with remote projects; and
• That physical model testing can add significant value in fine tuning a design, and providing confidence in the end solution.

'WONDERLAND' - Preparing to send Alice down the rabbit hole, the Southern approach trench to the Waterview Connection tunnels

Author

Wansbone, Matthew G.; Cartwright, Stuart

Source

NZ Geomechanics News December 2013 p.71-82

Year

2013

This article is part of a special feature on the Waterview Connection. The Southern Approach Trench (SAT), situated in Alan Wood Reserve, Owairaka, Auckland has provided unique geotechnical challenges during design and construction.

Grouting of basalt to improve seismic resilience for bridge foundations

Author

Hillier, Robert & Langbein, Andrew C. (2013)

Source

19th NZ Geotechnical Society Symposium, 2013, Queenstown

Year

2013

The 700 m long Newmarket Viaduct, Auckland, is a safety critical lifeline structure and carries motorway traffic flows of up to 160,000 vpd. The structure is supported on 12 pairs of piers, towering up to 20 m over Broadway in central Newmarket, Auckland.
Twelve of the individual bridge piers are founded on shallow pads bearing on the Mt Eden and Mt Hobson basalt flows. These shallow pad foundations have been designed for loads typically of the order of 25 MN. Peak design bearing pressures (seismic overturning) beneath the edges of the pads have been calculated to be of the order of 5 MPa. The structural and material consistency characteristics of the basalt provide a high risk to the static and seismic performance (settlement and bearing capacity) of the foundations under relatively onerous load conditions.
This paper presents the results and some observations of the characteristics of the basalt as identified from an extensive drill and grout programme undertaken to provide resilience for the foundations, particularly under the high seismic overturning load case scenarios.

Seismically induced displacement of land affecting multiple residential properties in the Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand, following the 2010/2011 earthquake sequence (1)

Author

Hunter, Rob P. (2013)

Source

19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium Queenstown 2013

Year

2013

This paper presents a summary of land damage observed in the Port Hills of Christchurch, New Zealand, following the earthquake sequence of 4 September 2010, in particular the land damage associated with a period of high seismic activity which commenced in February 2011. The earthquakes that occurred in this period have been collectively termed the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), consisting of four main earthquakes causing land damage in the Port Hills and some 20 significant aftershocks.
In New Zealand, the Earthquake Commission (EQC) administers and assesses claims made under the Earthquake Commission Act 1993 for residential land damage from earthquakes, (and other events included in the Act).
During the initial steps in property land damage mapping and assessment in the Port Hills for the EQC, it became apparent that in some areas, land deformation and movement observed on individual properties may have been the result of a mechanism that extended across many adjoining properties. Ultimately 22 such areas were identified to EQC and the observations made in those 22 areas form the basis of this paper.
Keywords: Port Hills, land deformation, cliff collapse, seismic displacement, retaining walls, Canterbury earthquake sequence

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