The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (library@tonkintaylor.co.nz) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.

The 2016 Meinong Taiwan Earthquake: learning from earthquakes report

Author

Henry, Richard S. , Lee, Bo-Yao , McGuigan, David , Finnegan, John & Ashby, Gordon G. (2017)

Source

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Vol. 50(3) September 2017

Year

2017

The Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016 in the southern region of Taiwan. The
earthquake caused significant damage in and around Tainan city, with a number of collapsed and severely
damaged buildings and 117 deaths. A five-member Learning from Earthquakes (LFE) team visited Taiwan
approximately one month after the earthquake, with particular focus on learning from changes to design
practice and seismic mitigation efforts following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Land damage was
generally modest with liquefaction and slope-failures observed in a limited number of locations. Some
notable instances of liquefaction-related foundation settlement and tilting occurred in areas associated with
historical filling. Following the earthquake, the Taiwanese government publically released liquefaction
hazard maps that will have a significant impact on public awareness and land values. The observed structural
damage was characteristic of non-ductile and poorly configured buildings. The collapsed buildings all
contained irregularities and soft-storeys. The majority of older mixed-use buildings performed adequately,
but severe column failures were observed in several taller apartment buildings constructed in the 1990s. The
performance of schools and district offices provided valuable insight into the successful implementation of
seismic assessment and strengthening programmes. A comparison of existing and strengthened buildings
showed that efficient retrofit solutions can reduce the risk posed by critical structural weaknesses and improve
the safety and resilience of these buildings. A similar strategy could be implemented for common critical structural weaknesses in New Zealand buildings.

Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Appendices

Author

Russell, James ; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd

Source

Client report for Chapman Tripp on behalf of the Earthquake Commission – Appendices

Year

2015

Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Report

Author

Russell, James ; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd

Source

Client report for Chapman Tripp on behalf of the Earthquake Commission – Report

Year

2015

Liquefaction vulnerability increase at North New Brighton due to subsidence, sea level rise and reduction in thickness of the non-liquefying layer

Author

Monk, Christopher B. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Hughes, Matthew & Villeneuve, Marlene (2016)

Source

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Vol. 49(4) December 2016

Year

2016

The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) of 2010 - 2011 caused widespread liquefaction related land damage to the city of Christchurch. This paper addresses the impact the CES had on the eastern Christchurch suburb of North New Brighton with emphasis on the ground condition at the time of the initial 4 September 2010 earthquake, as well as subsidence caused by the CES, and the future potential for increased liquefaction vulnerability due to Sea Level Rise (SLR). 
Subsidence at North New Brighton accumulated throughout the CES due to a reduction in volume of the soil profile through liquefaction; and overall settlement due to regional tectonic subsidence. The total amount of subsidence caused by the CES at North New Brighton was a much as 1 m in some places and this has changed the relationship between the position of the ground surface and the top of the groundwater table. A reduction in the thickness of the non-liquefying layer has been shown to increase the vulnerability of the soil profile to liquefaction related land damage during earthquake events. As a coastal suburb, North New Brighton is vulnerable to the impact of SLR and this paper considers the response of the groundwater table to rising sea level and the influence this will have on the thickness of the non-liquefying layer and liquefaction vulnerability.

Comparison of CPT-based simplified liquefaction assessment methodologies based on the Canterbury dataset

Author

van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Lacrosse, Virginie; Russell, James; Simpson, Jenny; Malan, Pierre

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington, 2015. Paper 082

Year

2015

The four most commonly used simplified Cone Penetration Test (CPT) based liquefaction triggering methods in engineering practice are Robertson and Wride (1998) as set out in Youd et al. (2001), Seed et al. (2003) as set out in Moss et al. (2006a), Idriss and Boulanger (2008) and Boulanger and Idriss (2014). This paper compares these four liquefaction triggering methods on a regional basis by calculating the associated Liquefaction Severity Number (LSN) for around 15,000 CPTs across Christchurch and correlating these calculated values with the liquefaction-induced land damage observations throughout the 2010 to 2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). The results show that all four methods provide reasonable correlations between observed land damage and the LSN liquefaction vulnerability parameter. Areas with none-to-minor observed liquefaction-induced land damage generally have low calculated LSN values and areas with moderate-to-severe liquefactioninduced land damage generally have high calculated LSN values. More detailed examination of the results shows that the Boulanger and Idriss (2014) liquefaction triggering method provides the best overall fit to the observed land damage for each of the main events across the CES and also provides the best differentiation between sites with no observed liquefaction-induced land damage at the ground surface and sites with observed liquefaction-induced land damage.

The effect of sea level rise on liquefaction vulnerability: a case study for consideration of development on coastal plains and reclamations

Author

Quilter, Peter W.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reinen-Hamill, Richard

Source

Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 2015, Auckland

Year

2015

The 2011-2012 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) has highlighted the need for greater understanding of liquefaction and its effect on development in coastal plains and reclaimed areas. It has also provided the ability to see how projected Sea Level Rise (SLR) is likely to affect liquefaction vulnerability. Published research [6] indicates the thickness of surface non-liquefying material or the "crust", as having a profound influence on the likelihood of land and building damage. Soil needs to be saturated for it to liquefy and full saturation generally occurs in the soils located beneath the groundwater table. In granular soil deposits (susceptible to liquefaction), the depth to groundwater primarily dictates the non-liquefying crust thickness. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report [5] indicates global mean sea level rises between 200 mm and 450 mm within the next 50 years are possible and substantially greater rises could be expected within the next 100 years. These SLRs will result in rises in groundwater levels in coastal plains. This paper reviews liquefaction vulnerability mapping of residential areas in Christchurch, and presents vulnerability maps for different levels of earthquake shaking based on current and revised groundwater levels reflecting SLR of 0.5m and 1.0m. The change in the percentage of the residential building portfolio in eastern Christchurch likely to experience moderate to major liquefaction related damage for the different earthquake shaking has been assessed for each groundwater scenario. The implications of SLR are commonly considered for inundation, erosion and tsunami risk. Little mention to date has been made regarding the increased level of risk that SLR will have on liquefaction in geological coastal settings similar to those of Christchurch, including recent coastal plains and reclaimed land. Because SLR increases the vulnerability to liquefaction, SLR effects should be taken into account when assessing this hazard.

The effect of subsidence on liquefaction vulnerability following the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence

Author

Russell, James; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Rogers, Nick W.; Lacrosse, Virginie; Jacka, Michael E.

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington 2015 (ANZ2015) Paper 81

Year

2015

During the 2010 – 2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), the June 2011 earthquake event caused relatively moderate levels of ground shaking. However, in this event, the incidence and severity of liquefaction-induced land damage was significantly greater in some areas than was anticipated relative to the severity of land damage caused by earlier events in the CES. It was observed that the increased incidence and severity of this type of land damage was spatially correlated with the occurrence of ground subsidence from earlier events due to volumetric densification, liquefaction ejecta, lateral spreading and tectonic movement. These observations formed the basis of a hypothesis that the reduced depth to groundwater as a result of ground surface subsidence effectively reduces the thickness of the non-liquefying crust and that the reduced crust thickness is less able to suppress liquefaction effects at the ground surface resulting in increased vulnerability to liquefaction-induced land damage. This paper illustrates the occurrence of increased liquefaction vulnerability with reference to both to qualitative and quantitative data collected as part of an extensive assessment of the effects of ground surface subsidence of the land in Canterbury. Analysis using two liquefaction vulnerability parameters, namely the Ishihara (1985) criteria and the Liquefaction Severity Number (LSN), quantifies the increase in liquefaction vulnerability caused by the ground surface subsidence.

Climate change and coastal hazards : a risk-based approach that connects science, engineering and planning

Author

Russ, Marje J. & Shand, Tom D.

Source

New Zealand Planning Institute Conference 2016, Dunedin

Year

2016

Government is proposing to add "the management of significant risks from natural hazards" to Section 6 of the RMA. There is already a strong shift in council practice on managing risk, and the change to Section 6 will mandate and codify a best practice risk-approach. This paper uses New Zealand examples to illustrate the shift in approach to understanding coastal hazard risks and the impact of climate change. These include experience from Kapiti, Hawke's Bay and Northland and highlight new understanding of the impact of climate change on natural hazards, including the impact of sea level rise on liquefaction susceptibility. They illustrate how hazard and risk information can be presented clearly to aid communities and councils to determine the most appropriate risk management responses. In addition, the paper demonstrates how the ISO 31000 international risk management standard can be applied to a robust interdisciplinary approach to RMA planning.

Seismic assessment and life extension for the Mahinerangi Dam

Author

Shelton, Robert , Abrie, Jako & Wansbone, Matthew G. (2016)

Source

ANCOLD/NZSOLD 2016 Conference, Adelaide

Year

2016

The Mahinerangi dam – arguably the most valuable in Trustpower’s portfolio of 47 large dams – is 
over 80 years old and needs a plan of work to confirm it meets current design standards.
The dam was completed in 1931, subsequently raised in 1944-1946, and strengthened with steel tendon anchors in 1961.
A comprehensive safety review (CSR) in 2007 noted a potential deficiency in the fully grouted 
anchors and a program of work commenced to re-evaluate the overall stability of the dam.
A potential failure mode assessment revealed that the dam may need upgrading to meet the criteria 
for maximum design earthquake (MDE). Areas of uncertainty were identified and a significant 
programme of survey, geological mapping, concrete testing and site specific seismic assessments 
have been carried out to reduce risk and uncertainty in design.
The paper discusses the dam’s history, current condition, and describes the ongoing programme of 
work planned to extend the life of the dam for another 80+ years.

Pipeline damage predictions in liquefaction zones using LSN (2)

Author

Toprak, Selcuk , Nacaroglu, E. , Koc, A.C. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Jacka, Michael E. , Torvelainen, Eric P. & O'Rourke, T.D. (2017)

Source

16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, 2017

Year

2017

Liquefaction is a major concern regarding earthquake damage to infrastructure. Recent earthquakes in New Zealand and resulting liquefaction caused significant damage to buried pipeline systems. Following the 4 September 2010 Mw=7.1 Darfield earthquake, five earthquakes (22 February 2011, Mw=6.2, 13 June 2011, Mw=5.3 at 1 p.m. and Mw=6.0 at 2:20 p.m. and 23 December 2011, Mw=5.8 at 1:58 p.m. and Mw=5.9 at 3:18 p.m.) and thousands of aftershocks have been recorded in the area of Christchurch, NZ. These earthquakes termed the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) are unprecedented in terms of repeated earthquake shocks with substantial levels of ground motion affecting a major city with modern infrastructure. This study focuses on the effects of 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake induced liquefaction on buried pipelines. Correlations were developed between pipe damage, expressed as repairs/km, and a recently developed parameter called liquefaction severity number (LSN). Cone Penetration Test (CPT) based liquefaction triggering procedures were used to calculate LSN values. Studies by Tonkin and Taylor [1,2] and van Ballegooy et al. [3, 4, 5, 6] have shown that LSN provides a good correlation with land and esidential house foundation damage observations recorded in Canterbury. According to results obtained in this study for buried pipelines, LSN has reasonably good correlation with asbestos cement (AC), cast iron (CI) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline damage

Considering post disaster damage to residential building construction - is our modern building construction resilient?

Author

Rogers, Nick W. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Williams, Kate & Johnson, Laurie (2015)

Source

6th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (6ICEGE)

Year

2015

The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) brought into stark relief the disconnection between building practice and natural hazard susceptibility. Despite the knowledge that most of the residential land in eastern Canterbury was susceptible to liquefaction, and possibly prone to flooding and tsunami hazards, brittle, heavy, unreinforced slab-on-grade residential house construction has predominated, particularly over the past 20 years. It is remarkable that the very same housing construction policies and methods that aggravated damage and recovery in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina would reappear in Christchurch little more than 5 years later. This paper examines the lessons learnt from the CES and presents a case for a consideration in how we build our homes to be affordable, resilient and more readily repairable, by better matching construction styles to the hazard.

Climate change and coastal hazards : a risk-based approach that connects science, engineering and planning (1)

Author

Russ, Marje J. & Shand, Tom D. (2016)

Source

New Zealand Planning Institute Conference 2016, Dunedin

Year

2016

Government is proposing to add "the management of significant risks from natural hazards" to Section 6 of the RMA. There is already a strong shift in council practice on managing risk, and the change to Section 6 will mandate and codify a best practice risk-approach. 
This paper uses New Zealand examples to illustrate the shift in approach to understanding coastal hazard risks and the impact of climate change. These include experience from Kapiti, Hawke's Bay and Northland and highlight new understanding of the impact of climate change on natural hazards, including the impact of sea level rise on liquefaction susceptibility. They illustrate how hazard and risk information can be presented clearly to aid communities and councils to determine the most appropriate risk management responses.
In addition, the paper demonstrates how the ISO 31000 international risk management standard can be applied to a robust interdisciplinary approach to RMA planning.

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