The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (firstname.lastname@example.org) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.
The 2016 Meinong Taiwan Earthquake: learning from earthquakes report
The Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016 in the southern region of Taiwan. The
earthquake caused significant damage in and around Tainan city, with a number of collapsed and severely
damaged buildings and 117 deaths. A five-member Learning from Earthquakes (LFE) team visited Taiwan
approximately one month after the earthquake, with particular focus on learning from changes to design
practice and seismic mitigation efforts following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Land damage was
generally modest with liquefaction and slope-failures observed in a limited number of locations. Some
notable instances of liquefaction-related foundation settlement and tilting occurred in areas associated with
historical filling. Following the earthquake, the Taiwanese government publically released liquefaction
hazard maps that will have a significant impact on public awareness and land values. The observed structural
damage was characteristic of non-ductile and poorly configured buildings. The collapsed buildings all
contained irregularities and soft-storeys. The majority of older mixed-use buildings performed adequately,
but severe column failures were observed in several taller apartment buildings constructed in the 1990s. The
performance of schools and district offices provided valuable insight into the successful implementation of
seismic assessment and strengthening programmes. A comparison of existing and strengthened buildings
showed that efficient retrofit solutions can reduce the risk posed by critical structural weaknesses and improve
the safety and resilience of these buildings. A similar strategy could be implemented for common critical structural weaknesses in New Zealand buildings.
Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Appendices
Canterbury Earthquake Sequence : increased liquefaction vulnerability assessment methodology - Report
Liquefaction vulnerability increase at North New Brighton due to subsidence, sea level rise and reduction in thickness of the non-liquefying layer
The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) of 2010 - 2011 caused widespread liquefaction related land damage to the city of Christchurch. This paper addresses the impact the CES had on the eastern Christchurch suburb of North New Brighton with emphasis on the ground condition at the time of the initial 4 September 2010 earthquake, as well as subsidence caused by the CES, and the future potential for increased liquefaction vulnerability due to Sea Level Rise (SLR).
Subsidence at North New Brighton accumulated throughout the CES due to a reduction in volume of the soil profile through liquefaction; and overall settlement due to regional tectonic subsidence. The total amount of subsidence caused by the CES at North New Brighton was a much as 1 m in some places and this has changed the relationship between the position of the ground surface and the top of the groundwater table. A reduction in the thickness of the non-liquefying layer has been shown to increase the vulnerability of the soil profile to liquefaction related land damage during earthquake events. As a coastal suburb, North New Brighton is vulnerable to the impact of SLR and this paper considers the response of the groundwater table to rising sea level and the influence this will have on the thickness of the non-liquefying layer and liquefaction vulnerability.
Comparison of CPT-based simplified liquefaction assessment methodologies based on the Canterbury dataset
The effect of sea level rise on liquefaction vulnerability: a case study for consideration of development on coastal plains and reclamations
The effect of subsidence on liquefaction vulnerability following the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence
Climate change and coastal hazards : a risk-based approach that connects science, engineering and planning
Seismic assessment and life extension for the Mahinerangi Dam
The Mahinerangi dam – arguably the most valuable in Trustpower’s portfolio of 47 large dams – is
over 80 years old and needs a plan of work to confirm it meets current design standards.
The dam was completed in 1931, subsequently raised in 1944-1946, and strengthened with steel tendon anchors in 1961.
A comprehensive safety review (CSR) in 2007 noted a potential deficiency in the fully grouted
anchors and a program of work commenced to re-evaluate the overall stability of the dam.
A potential failure mode assessment revealed that the dam may need upgrading to meet the criteria
for maximum design earthquake (MDE). Areas of uncertainty were identified and a significant
programme of survey, geological mapping, concrete testing and site specific seismic assessments
have been carried out to reduce risk and uncertainty in design.
The paper discusses the dam’s history, current condition, and describes the ongoing programme of
work planned to extend the life of the dam for another 80+ years.
Pipeline damage predictions in liquefaction zones using LSN (2)
Liquefaction is a major concern regarding earthquake damage to infrastructure. Recent earthquakes in New Zealand and resulting liquefaction caused significant damage to buried pipeline systems. Following the 4 September 2010 Mw=7.1 Darfield earthquake, five earthquakes (22 February 2011, Mw=6.2, 13 June 2011, Mw=5.3 at 1 p.m. and Mw=6.0 at 2:20 p.m. and 23 December 2011, Mw=5.8 at 1:58 p.m. and Mw=5.9 at 3:18 p.m.) and thousands of aftershocks have been recorded in the area of Christchurch, NZ. These earthquakes termed the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) are unprecedented in terms of repeated earthquake shocks with substantial levels of ground motion affecting a major city with modern infrastructure. This study focuses on the effects of 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake induced liquefaction on buried pipelines. Correlations were developed between pipe damage, expressed as repairs/km, and a recently developed parameter called liquefaction severity number (LSN). Cone Penetration Test (CPT) based liquefaction triggering procedures were used to calculate LSN values. Studies by Tonkin and Taylor [1,2] and van Ballegooy et al. [3, 4, 5, 6] have shown that LSN provides a good correlation with land and esidential house foundation damage observations recorded in Canterbury. According to results obtained in this study for buried pipelines, LSN has reasonably good correlation with asbestos cement (AC), cast iron (CI) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline damage
Considering post disaster damage to residential building construction - is our modern building construction resilient?
The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) brought into stark relief the disconnection between building practice and natural hazard susceptibility. Despite the knowledge that most of the residential land in eastern Canterbury was susceptible to liquefaction, and possibly prone to flooding and tsunami hazards, brittle, heavy, unreinforced slab-on-grade residential house construction has predominated, particularly over the past 20 years. It is remarkable that the very same housing construction policies and methods that aggravated damage and recovery in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina would reappear in Christchurch little more than 5 years later. This paper examines the lessons learnt from the CES and presents a case for a consideration in how we build our homes to be affordable, resilient and more readily repairable, by better matching construction styles to the hazard.
Climate change and coastal hazards : a risk-based approach that connects science, engineering and planning (1)
Government is proposing to add "the management of significant risks from natural hazards" to Section 6 of the RMA. There is already a strong shift in council practice on managing risk, and the change to Section 6 will mandate and codify a best practice risk-approach.
This paper uses New Zealand examples to illustrate the shift in approach to understanding coastal hazard risks and the impact of climate change. These include experience from Kapiti, Hawke's Bay and Northland and highlight new understanding of the impact of climate change on natural hazards, including the impact of sea level rise on liquefaction susceptibility. They illustrate how hazard and risk information can be presented clearly to aid communities and councils to determine the most appropriate risk management responses.
In addition, the paper demonstrates how the ISO 31000 international risk management standard can be applied to a robust interdisciplinary approach to RMA planning.
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