The following publications are works either authored by our staff or, in some cases, co-authored with people from outside the company.This selection of conference papers and journal articles can be accessed by requesting individual items from our Tonkin + Taylor Ltd Library (library@tonkintaylor.co.nz) or by clicking on the button beside the item. There is no charge for this service. However, please note that our Library follows Library Association (LIANZA) guidelines (link to their guidelines here) and reserves the right not to supply any item if these conditions are not met.

Geotechnical Monitoring and Management of TBM (EPB) Tunnelling Induced Settlement: The case of Waterview Connection Project Tunnel

Author

Koumoutsakos, D. , France, S. & Cartwright, Stuart (2017)

Source

16th Australasain Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

This paper presents measurements of tunnelling induced settlements collected during the
construction of the Waterview Connection project. The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection
project involves the construction of 5 km of motorway to complete Auckland’s Western Ring Route.
Half of this new link includes twin 14.5 m diameter mainline tunnels constructed by Earth Pressure
Balance (EPB) Tunnel Boring Machine with 16 sequentially excavated cross-passages. Over most of
the tunnelled length the excavation is through extremely weak to weak interbedded sandstones and
siltstones of the East Coast Bays Formation (ECBF) overlain by weathered ECBF and alluvium.
However, tunnelling was also undertaken through stronger, volcanoclastic sandstone, and, through
alluvial soils at low cover. In the following paper the instrumentation methodology, monitoring regime
and analysed results are presented. The attention is given mainly to the monitoring data recorded
under free field conditions during and after the construction of the mainline tunnels. Settlement
readings are back-analysed using the classical Gaussian empirical predictions, in traverse arrays, and
at particular sections in longitudinal direction, providing a detailed description of the EPB tunnelling
performance under varied geotechnical conditions. The use of TBM calibration zones in selected
green field sites and how that data helped optimize TBM performance in relation to ground effects, is
discussed. Finally the influence of different parameters, such as tunnel depth, overlying geological
layers and tunnel face pressure, to the induced settlement, estimated ground loss and the shape of
settlement trough is investigated.

Fissure grouting and rock defect characterisation for the Waterview cross passage tunnels

Author

Maclean, Hamish , Cartwright, Stuart & Giauque, A. (2017)

Source

16th Australasian Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection project in Auckland, New Zealand
involved the construction of a new 5km long, three lane motorway with twin, 2.4km long, three lane
tunnels up to 35m deep beneath urban Auckland. Pre-excavation fissure grouting was undertaken to
limit the inflow of groundwater into a number of the cross passage tunnel excavations. Investigation
and characterisation of rock mass defects at each cross passage ensured that fissure grouting was
only undertaken at cross passages to be excavated through highly permeable rock. This paper
outlines the geology of the tunnel alignment, the investigations carried out to characterise the rock
mass defects and the process followed to identify ‘at risk’ cross passages to be grouted. The grout mix
design and the grouting methodology are also discussed. Results and observations from the preexcavation
fissure grouting operation are presented and conclusions drawn as to the suitability of this
technique for the local ground conditions.

Liquefaction vulnerability increase at North New Brighton due to subsidence, sea level rise and reduction in thickness of the non-liquefying layer

Author

Monk, Christopher B. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Hughes, Matthew & Villeneuve, Marlene (2016)

Source

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Vol. 49(4) December 2016

Year

2016

The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) of 2010 - 2011 caused widespread liquefaction related land damage to the city of Christchurch. This paper addresses the impact the CES had on the eastern Christchurch suburb of North New Brighton with emphasis on the ground condition at the time of the initial 4 September 2010 earthquake, as well as subsidence caused by the CES, and the future potential for increased liquefaction vulnerability due to Sea Level Rise (SLR). 
Subsidence at North New Brighton accumulated throughout the CES due to a reduction in volume of the soil profile through liquefaction; and overall settlement due to regional tectonic subsidence. The total amount of subsidence caused by the CES at North New Brighton was a much as 1 m in some places and this has changed the relationship between the position of the ground surface and the top of the groundwater table. A reduction in the thickness of the non-liquefying layer has been shown to increase the vulnerability of the soil profile to liquefaction related land damage during earthquake events. As a coastal suburb, North New Brighton is vulnerable to the impact of SLR and this paper considers the response of the groundwater table to rising sea level and the influence this will have on the thickness of the non-liquefying layer and liquefaction vulnerability.

Waterview Connection Tunnels: Engineering Geology Assessment of East Coast Bays Formation from Investigation through to Construction

Author

Cartwright, Stuart , Koumoutsakos, D. , Hill, B. & Morrison, Conor W. (2017)

Source

16th Australasian Tunnelling Conference, 2017, Sydney

Year

2017

The NZ Transport Agency’s Waterview Connection project in Auckland, New Zealand
involved the construction of a new 5km long, three lane motorway with twin, 2.4km long, three lane
tunnels up to 35m deep beneath urban Auckland. The mainline tunnels were constructed using a 14.5m
diameter Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). Sixteen cross-passages up to 12m in length with diameters
ranging from 6m to 8.5m were constructed using the Sequential Excavation Method (SEM) between the
two mainline tunnels. Tunnelling was undertaken in ground typical of the East Coast Bays Formation
and comprised extremely weak to weak interbedded sandstone and siltstone varying in degrees of
cementation from uncemented (grain-locked) sands to well-cemented siltstones and coarse-grained
volcaniclastic sandstones of the Parnell Grit Member. The Project was subject to detailed investigations
from concept design through to TBM and SEM tunnelling, with particular attention given to intact rock
characteristics, rock structure, groundwater and ground behaviour. The ground was mapped, RMR
recorded and the rock mass classified according to GSI during each TBM maintenance intervention and
SEM tunnelling advance. This paper summarises the results of these engineering geology assessments
and discusses the ground conditions prevalent when localised over excavation or convergence was
observed.

Transforming Victoria Street : working together to tackle utility design (1)

Author

Clune, Paul G. & Everett, Carys (2016)

Source

Water New Zealand Annual Conference, 2016, Rotorua

Year

2016

The Victoria Street Transformation Project has provided Wellington with a tree lined boulevard, enhancing the pedestrian experience with wider footpaths and parks. This has facilitated and encouraged development within the area as well as improved traffic and cycling flows.

The project had a short timeframe from its announcement in September 2014 to its completion by 3
June 2015. In order to achieve these optimistic timeframes, the project was delivered by the 
already established and successful Memorial Park Alliance (the Alliance).
The challenge for wet services was to remove, replace and add new components to the water supply, 
stormwater and wastewater networks in a busy part of Wellington where these services were critical 
to the wider city network. The urban complexity meant that design and construction issues were 
inevitable and could only be discovered and solved once the ground was opened up. Further 
complications included the need to move services before other elements of the design were complete, 
the quantity of services underground, and the need to keep Victoria Street and Vivian Street (State 
Highway 1) open at all times.

The Alliance delivery model allowed for close collaboration between the design and construction 
teams and the owner, Wellington City Council (WCC). This enabled swift decision making which was 
essential to the successful completion of the project. This collaborative approach resulted in 
innovative and time-efficient solutions, which had a significant contribution to the project being 
completed on time.

Golden Cross Landslide - effects of stabilisation works 17 years later

Author

Loney, Grant A.; Harrison, Ben T.

Source

12th Australia - New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington, 2015

Year

2015

This paper presents a review of the Golden Cross Landslide near Waihi 17 years after its successful stabilisation by use of major drainage and earthworks. The landslide is interesting because of its size, 2100 m long, 500 m to 1000 m wide and up to 145 m deep, and supports a large tailings dam retaining approximately 1.7 million cubic metres of tailings from the previous gold mining operation. The paper includes a review of historic and current landslide movement rates (from inclinometer and GPS data), piezometric data and presents an assessment of the ongoing effect of the stabilisation measures. Comment is also made on the long term relative effectiveness of the various stabilisation measures from the nearly 20 years of data available.

Catchment Level Modeling of Green Roofs using InfoWorks CS (1)

Author

Desai, Ajay A. & Londhe, Shreenivas (2016)

Source

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering Vol. 9(6) December 2016 p. 2437-2451

Year

2016

Green roofs are vegetation installed on top of buildings to provide flow control by attenuation, storage and losses due to evapotranspiration. A green roof consists of several-layered materials to achieve the desired vegetative cover and drainage characteristics. An attempt has been made to use the different runoff and infiltration models available in the widely used hydraulic modeling software - InfoWorks CS to model runoff from green roofs during storm events and over a longer continuous simulation period. The most suitable model was then applied to test the benefits across 03 catchments in InfoWorks CS considering a range of percentage uptake of green roofs within the catchments. The benefits of green roofs implemented on a catchment level are assessed in terms of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) performances.

Seismic assessment and life extension for the Mahinerangi Dam

Author

Shelton, Robert , Abrie, Jako & Wansbone, Matthew G. (2016)

Source

ANCOLD/NZSOLD 2016 Conference, Adelaide

Year

2016

The Mahinerangi dam – arguably the most valuable in Trustpower’s portfolio of 47 large dams – is 
over 80 years old and needs a plan of work to confirm it meets current design standards.
The dam was completed in 1931, subsequently raised in 1944-1946, and strengthened with steel tendon anchors in 1961.
A comprehensive safety review (CSR) in 2007 noted a potential deficiency in the fully grouted 
anchors and a program of work commenced to re-evaluate the overall stability of the dam.
A potential failure mode assessment revealed that the dam may need upgrading to meet the criteria 
for maximum design earthquake (MDE). Areas of uncertainty were identified and a significant 
programme of survey, geological mapping, concrete testing and site specific seismic assessments 
have been carried out to reduce risk and uncertainty in design.
The paper discusses the dam’s history, current condition, and describes the ongoing programme of 
work planned to extend the life of the dam for another 80+ years.

Onehunga foreshore restoration project

Author

Reinen-Hamill, Richard , Sweeney, Manea , Howat, Mike & Hannah, Greg

Source

Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, Auckland, 2015

Year

2015

This paper describes the process of foreshore restoration of the coastal suburb of Onehunga, situated on the shores of Manukau Harbour, Auckland, focussing on the foreshore design components. The foreshore was separated from the harbour in 1975 as part of Auckland’s motorway development programme that was initiated in the 1950’s. The proposed amenity enhancements were not carried out at the time due to budget constraints. Through ongoing community advocacy, Auckland Council and the New Zealand Transport Agency revisited the issue with a vision to; restore the coastline of Onehunga Bay and the recreational and amenity values which once existed there; reconnect the community to the foreshore; provide improved pedestrian and cycle connections; enhance visual amenity and natural character and provide facilities for public enjoyment of the coast. The preferred design concept was developed through a competition process via consortia comprised of both contractors and consultants to provide both creative and affordable solutions. The winning consortia including Fulton Hogan Ltd, Tonkin & Taylor, Isthmus Group and URS was commissioned to gain consent and complete the design and construction for 6.8 Ha new park land; three sand beaches, six gravel shell beaches, a pedestrian and cycle bridge, a boat ramp as well as a bio-diversity offset for marine birds to address the loss of intertidal area. Design innovation was achieved with a strong focus on understanding the natural character and coastal processes operating at the site to create 1.4 km of soft edge to replace 700 m of rock revetment and to create a landform that included varying topography to reflect to surrounding landscape. Keywords: Coastal restoration, reclamation, beach nourishment, coastal erosion, bio-diversity offset.

Pipeline damage predictions in liquefaction zones using LSN (2)

Author

Toprak, Selcuk , Nacaroglu, E. , Koc, A.C. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Jacka, Michael E. , Torvelainen, Eric P. & O'Rourke, T.D. (2017)

Source

16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, 2017

Year

2017

Liquefaction is a major concern regarding earthquake damage to infrastructure. Recent earthquakes in New Zealand and resulting liquefaction caused significant damage to buried pipeline systems. Following the 4 September 2010 Mw=7.1 Darfield earthquake, five earthquakes (22 February 2011, Mw=6.2, 13 June 2011, Mw=5.3 at 1 p.m. and Mw=6.0 at 2:20 p.m. and 23 December 2011, Mw=5.8 at 1:58 p.m. and Mw=5.9 at 3:18 p.m.) and thousands of aftershocks have been recorded in the area of Christchurch, NZ. These earthquakes termed the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) are unprecedented in terms of repeated earthquake shocks with substantial levels of ground motion affecting a major city with modern infrastructure. This study focuses on the effects of 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake induced liquefaction on buried pipelines. Correlations were developed between pipe damage, expressed as repairs/km, and a recently developed parameter called liquefaction severity number (LSN). Cone Penetration Test (CPT) based liquefaction triggering procedures were used to calculate LSN values. Studies by Tonkin and Taylor [1,2] and van Ballegooy et al. [3, 4, 5, 6] have shown that LSN provides a good correlation with land and esidential house foundation damage observations recorded in Canterbury. According to results obtained in this study for buried pipelines, LSN has reasonably good correlation with asbestos cement (AC), cast iron (CI) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline damage

Considering post disaster damage to residential building construction - is our modern building construction resilient?

Author

Rogers, Nick W. , van Ballegooy, Sjoerd , Williams, Kate & Johnson, Laurie (2015)

Source

6th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (6ICEGE)

Year

2015

The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) brought into stark relief the disconnection between building practice and natural hazard susceptibility. Despite the knowledge that most of the residential land in eastern Canterbury was susceptible to liquefaction, and possibly prone to flooding and tsunami hazards, brittle, heavy, unreinforced slab-on-grade residential house construction has predominated, particularly over the past 20 years. It is remarkable that the very same housing construction policies and methods that aggravated damage and recovery in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina would reappear in Christchurch little more than 5 years later. This paper examines the lessons learnt from the CES and presents a case for a consideration in how we build our homes to be affordable, resilient and more readily repairable, by better matching construction styles to the hazard.

A new approach for assessing seismic performance of structures - a geotechnical perspective

Author

Riman, A.K. & Palmer, Stuart J

Source

New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE) Conference, 2016, Christchurch

Year

2016

The current version of NZSEE‟s Red Book provides limited guidance on how foundations of existing buildings should be assessed in a detailed seismic assessment(DSA). This paper describes a new performance based procedure proposed in the recent draft update to The Red Book. The performance is assessed through the three ranges of foundation seismic loading: Dependable Range, Performance Based Range and Resilience Range. An example is presented as a special case for a raft foundation on soils including lenses susceptible to liquefaction / cyclic softening. The main steps of a soil-foundation-structure assessment of an existing building are summarised.

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