Ask An Engineer
Ever wondered how you know where to drill a well? We asked hydrogeologist Tara Forstner, "How do you find well water"?
Take a look at her response below!
Well water, also called groundwater, is found everywhere.
Groundwater is simply subsurface water that fully saturates pores/cracks in soils, unconsolidated and bedrock formations.
Therefore, a very simple answer to 'how do you find well water' could be countered with, ‘how deep are you willing to go?!’ It is not a matter of what location has groundwater, but rather a question of how DEEP do you have to go to find bore water.
A number of factors affect the depth to groundwater, such as climate, topography, geology, and seasonality. Groundwater/surface water can be thought of as a singular system in many cases.
Streams, lakes, and the sea level, are surface representations of the water table intersecting the topography. Therefore, within close proximity to these features and at lower relative topographies (such as floodplains), we often have a higher confidence in determining depth to groundwater.
However, there are too many exceptions to go into, such as perched areas (where groundwater may seasonally exists above the water table), or where streams are disconnected from the water table. Surface water – groundwater hydraulic relationships are often not straightforward and a good conceptual model is required.
In addition, just because we know where the water is doesn’t mean we can always effectively use it. Well water abstracted for the purpose of household use or irrigation also has to consider the aquifer yield - this is how much water you can actually get out of the aquifer. This is where geology becomes very important, as even though you may be in saturated ground, a well screened in clay is not going to be nearly as productive as a well screened in sand.
a) Simple description of “typical” groundwater system. http://geologylearn.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_90.html
b) Example of a more complex system, such as karstic (limestone geology).
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Q. Although there is no definitive answer to the question ‘How long is a piece of string’, there has to be one with ‘How long is a can of spaghetti’?
You could lay the spaghetti out end-to-end and measure it out that way. But is there a way you could calculate the length while keeping the pasta within the tin?
We asked physicist and acoustic engineer, Darran Humpheson to answer this perplexing pasta problem.
A. I was given an 820g tin of spaghetti. The data on the can says it is 52% spaghetti (48% sauce). I measured the height and diameter of the can and estimated the diameter of the spaghetti at 6mm.
I then calculated the volume of the spaghetti in the can. Dividing this by the cross-sectional area gave me the total length of spaghetti.
The working figures:
Can of Spaghetti
Height of can in cm
Diameter of can in cm
Diameter of spaghetti / mm
Volume of can in cm3
Quantity of spaghetti per can
Volume of spaghetti per can in cm3
Once I had worked out these numbers, I put them into the following formula to figure out the length of spaghetti:
The final calculation was that there should be 16.61 metres of spaghetti in the can.
We verified the answer by literally laying out the spaghetti end to end. See the video below of how we did it!
The total length was 16.24 metres. That makes the expected and actual answers only 37cm apart – pretty good calculations! Although the final answer means you get slightly less spaghetti than you would expect for what you pay.
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Located in Wyoming, USA, Devils Tower is a peculiar lone formation that rises tall above the surrounding grassland and pine forests.
But how was it formed?
Senior Engineering Geologist Kevin Hind has an idea.
A: Devils Tower was formed from magma that has risen up through weaker sedimentary rocks. It may or may not have been part of an established volcano or it was a new volcano erupting through the surface – no one really knows. Once the magma stopped rising, it cooled and solidified. As it cooled it shrank in size, with cracks opening up in the characteristic columns - like what happens in mud when it dries. Over time, the weaker sedimentary rocks were eroded away around the tower leaving the stronger volcanic rock behind.
Cooling columns or columnar jointing of this type can be seen in the lava at Auckland Grammar School although they are not as high quality or as strong and therefore not as large or prominent. This is likely because they formed within lava on the surface rather than a slowly cooling subsurface mass.
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Bumper-to-bumper. Feet tapping between accelerator and brake pedal in a metronome-like fashion. Movement on the roads slows down to what feels like a glacial drip.
Welcome to March Madness.
Traffic congestion picks up, and, for Aucklanders in particular, frustration picks up too. March is officially underway and we thought we'd ask Transportation Engineer Matan Aharon:
What is March Madness? Why does it happen and how do we cope with the busyness it brings?
A: March Madness is generally considered the biggest headache of the year for Auckland’s transport system. It’s the time of the year when both roads and public transport demand is at its heaviest.
This is due to a combination of factors; all primary and secondary students are back at school, about 100,000 university students are back to classes, there are the fewest number of people taking holidays, there are generally fewer sick days taken in summer and as the roads get busier, more people try out public transport as a way of avoiding congestion.
The summer roadworks construction season also puts pressure on the road network at the same time, with closures and diversions in place. During March Madness, Auckland Transport tries to find ‘spare’ buses in the fleets of operators and deploy them where daily data shows the squeezes are worst, but this can only help so much.
There are lots of things we can do to cope with the busyness. We can try alternatives to driving such as bussing, cycling or e-scooters, we can carpool either with co-workers, friends or through apps like SmartTravel, consider changing when you travel to avoid the peak congestion or even work from home to avoid the congestion altogether.
The buzz around EVs (electric vehicles), is, well, electric.
EV ownership in New Zealand and Australia has seen exponential growth over the past decade with savings on petrol and a reduced carbon footprint among the leading purchasing reasons for consumers.
But for those particularly concerned about reducing their carbon emissions, it isn’t just the vehicle itself that needs to be factored into the equation – the source of energy must be accounted for as well.
In New Zealand, 80% of our energy comes from renewable sources. In Australia, 80% of their energy comes from coal.
The question on our minds is:
Is it still considered “green” to use an EV in a country reliant on non-renewable energy sources?
We asked T+T Environmental Engineer Rob van de Munckhof and below is his detailed answer:
The question is not quite as simple as it seems at first, but assuming you mean “green” to be carbon emissions two aspects need to be considered. Firstly, the carbon footprint associated with the manufacture of the vehicles and secondly the carbon footprint associated with running the vehicle.
The estimated carbon emissions during the manufacture of an electric vehicle have been calculated at 8.8 tonnes CO2e which can be compared to a standard petrol vehicle at 5.6 tonnes CO2e and a hybrid vehicle at 6.5 tonnes of CO2e. This shows that the manufacture of electric vehicles emits nearly 60% more carbon than the manufacture of normal petrol vehicles. This is commonly reported as stating that electric vehicles are worse for the environment than petrol vehicles but ignores the carbon contribution in use.
During use, many electric vehicle sellers highlight the CO2 emissions as 0, where in reality the emissions depend on the source of electricity used. As the question highlights this varies significantly, with NZ sourcing approximately 80 % of our electricity from renewable sources which have zero carbon emissions where certain states in Australia rely heavily on coal and on average only has 15% renewable sources.Saying this, as indicated in the opening statement, “green” can mean many things, and the above calculations assume you are charging your vehicles entirely off the grid. A number of surveys have been undertaken in Europe and North America looking at the link between electric vehicle ownership and home solar. The surveys have indicated that electric vehicle owners are more likely to have home solar than non-electric vehicle owners (although the proportion is still less than 30%). Using home solar to solely charge your vehicle would reduce the lifetime running emissions to 0.
Like petrol vehicles, the fuel (or in the case for electric vehicles energy efficiency) varies depending on the size of the car. The efficiency is commonly reported as kWh/ 100 km with efficiencies ranging from 15.7 kWh/ 100 km for the Hyundai Ioniq to 24 kWh/ 100 km for bigger vehicles such as the Tesla Model X.
In New Zealand this works out to be approximately 2 to 3 kg of CO2e per 100 km, while in Australia this works out to be approximately 14 to 22 kg of CO2e per 100 km on average. It is worth noting that the carbon emission factors vary throughout Australia with the emission factors for Tasmania similar to NZ while the emission factor for Victoria is significantly higher (0.15 kgCO2e per kWh for Tasmania compared to 0.9 overall and 1.02 for Victoria). This can be compared to the emissions from normal petrol vehicles such as a Toyota Corolla of 14 kg of CO2e per 100km, or 9 kg of CO2e per 100km, for a hybrid Prius or up to 23 kg of CO2e per 100km for a large SUV such as Toyota Highlander.
Based on a travel distance of 100,000 km, the total carbon emissions can be calculated as follows:
Manufacturing emissions (tonnes CO2e)
Running emissions (tonnes CO2e)
Total (tonnes CO2e)
Standard petrol vehicle
Large petrol vehicle
Small electric vehicle
Large electric vehicle
Standard petrol vehicle
Large petrol vehicle
Small electric vehicles
Large electric vehicle
Electric vehicles in Victoria
18 to 28
27 to 37
Therefore, in New Zealand, owning an electric vehicle can significantly reduce your carbon emissions. In Australia, if you rely on the grid, owning an electric vehicle will increase your carbon emissions comparing similar sized vehicles and is worse if you live in Victoria.
The other factor associated with electric vehicles is the impact on urban air pollution. Studies have determined that over 1700 people die prematurely in Australia and nearly 400 people in New Zealand due to exposure to emissions from vehicles in particular emissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate. Electric vehicle emissions have zero tail pipe emissions and therefore reduce the potential emissions to the communities where the vehicles are used. Further, emissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate from power stations are tightly controlled to ensure these are not causing any significant effects to surrounding communities.
In summary driving an electric vehicle in New Zealand reduces both your carbon emissions and the health impacts from tailpipe emissions. In Australia, generally unless you use your own solar panels to charge your EV, driving an electric vehicle will increase your carbon emissions but will reduce the potential health impacts from tailpipe emissions.
In both scenarios, if you really want to reduce your carbon emissions, ditching the car and walking or cycling will make the most difference with both walking and cycling generating no carbon emissions and being better for your overall health. With one third of vehicle trips in New Zealand less than two kilometres, and two thirds less than 6km leaving your car at home is easy.
When it comes to water on Earth, you could say that we’re only scratching the surface.
Hydrogeology (not to be confused with Hydrology), is the study of groundwater and is part of the service offerings we provide here at T+T. But what does a Hydrogeologist do? What sort of work do they deal with?
We passed that question on to Hydrogeologist Kevin Ledwith:
Q: What does a Hydrogeologist do?
A: Earth is known as the blue planet because of its abundance of water, however only a small percentage (about 0.3%) is usable by humans. It’s estimated that 98% of all this useable freshwater exists as groundwater, however the vast majority of it is hidden away from view. Occasionally groundwater moves fast and makes a spectacular display in a geyser, an underground cave, or a large spring, but for the most part, it moves very slowly and exists in small pore spaces underground.
Depending on where you are in the world, groundwater can be either the solution or the problem. Areas of the planet with low rainfall or polluted surface waters depend on groundwater as a source of drinking water, for irrigation, and to maintain healthy ecosystems. Whereas, construction projects that require earthworks below the water table (e.g. basements or tunnels) need to temporarily pump groundwater away from areas in order to build foundations in suitably dry conditions.
Regardless of where you are in the world, groundwater requires careful monitoring and management to ensure that it remains available in sufficient quantities, is safe to consume, and will not create land stability or engineering related problems. Enter the role of the Hydrogeologist!
A Hydrogeologist is a person who studies the flow of water underground, compared with Hydrologists who are primarily concerned with surface water. They tend to be either office-based or field-based, or they may work in a combination of these environments. Hydrogeologists are responsible for identifying and assessing the location, quantity and quality of valuable groundwater resources so that future development works do not negatively affect humans or natural and built environments.
The science of Hydrogeology deals with how water gets into the ground (recharge), how it flows in the subsurface (through aquifers) and how groundwater interacts with the environment and surrounding soil, rock and surface waters (rivers, lakes, and the ocean). To access groundwater, it is necessary to drill into aquifers and to install wells, these wells are then either used for water supply or to monitor how groundwater levels change with time.
Hydrogeologists are trained in mathematics and sciences including physics, chemistry, biology, geology, geography, and environmental science. They draw on knowledge and skills in these areas to collect and interpret data, apply scientific and engineering principles, and to present their work in reports. Some of their day-to-day tasks include:
- Visit sites to supervise drilling or to collect groundwater level or quality data from wells
- Compilation of groundwater information from previous reports and datasets
- Data analysis. Depending on the project, this may involve relatively simple calculations or may require more sophisticated statistical analyses
- Use of specialist software to predict how and where groundwater will occur in the future
- Preparing drawings, maps, graphs, and tables to support technical reports
- Preparation of interpretative reports to provide advice for non-technical audiences
Governments and councils depend on professional Hydrogeologists to ensure that human health and environmental regulations are appropriate and are adhered to. To achieve this, sometimes it is required for a Hydrogeologist to attend local Hearings and Environment Courts as an expert-witness relating to enforced laws, policies or legislation.
Groundwater plays an important role in a large diversity of projects at Tonkin +Taylor. Our Hydrogeologists are awarded the opportunity to solve a wide array of complex problems involving multiple specialist areas. Their efforts positively contribute to society, directly impact urban and rural communities, and help protect natural and built environments. In return, they are given the surety of a challenging but rewarding career. A selection of projects that Tonkin +Taylor’s Hydrogeologists have worked on recently include:
- Protecting and securing drinking water from contamination
- Planning for future water supply challenges associated with population growth
- Building resilience against climate change and natural hazards
- Assessing potential engineering impacts of construction dewatering projects, including assessments of tunnels, basements, and other excavations
- Assessing potential effects on the environment, ensuring that proposed projects do not: impact existing groundwater users, induce the depletion of rivers or intrusion of saltwater into aquifers, cause land stability or engineering problems, create water contamination issues
For more, check out the hydrogeology page and stay tuned for some upcoming infographics!
It's been a fantastic three months for our interns, and, with it being their final week here at T+T, we decided to switch up our Ask An Engineer slot and hand it over to our interns!
We've fired through a novelty question:
Why do socks disappear and what can we do to mitigate this?
A: It’s 7am and you’re getting ready for work. You shower, get dressed and reach for your socks… and realise you can’t find two that match. Amid the scramble, you wonder to yourself, just where do these socks go?
This question has haunted humanity for years. While it’s not one we can answer, we felt sure that we might be able to contribute to the debate “why it is that socks disappear?” and “what we could do to prevent or mitigate their loss?” Rather than ask just one engineer, we called upon the brightest minds of tomorrow – the 2019 T+T interns (engineers, scientists, and business services professionals) – to answer this most pressing question, before waving them off to another year of study.
The interns quickly identified five major variables that influence sock loss:
- Storage method
- Washing and drying technique
- Sock characteristics
- Household residents
Variable one: care
‘Care’ includes factors such as relative income compared to the price of socks, and personality traits. If you’re as laid back as Bob Marley was, you probably don’t worry much about the odd misplaced sock or whether you have a matching pair. Similarly, if you have a high enough income that the price of socks doesn’t concern you, you may be more prone to sock loss. It’s debatable whether the Queen of England has ever even realised that sock loss was a thing. Meghan and Harry, however, might be a bit more conscious of the phenomenon in future.
Variable two: storage method
This is actually a multi-factor issue. Factor one: do you pair your socks together when you put them away? Our merry band of interns hypothesised that those who lack motivation for the proper pairing of socks when storing would be more prone to loss of individual socks. Factor two: the bigger the space you launder and store them in, the more room you have to lose your socks. Combine these two factors together, and you’ve got a veritable equation for losing socks.
Variable three: washing and drying technique
Just how often do you do the washing? Do you dry your clothes using a machine, or on the line? Our interns thought that those that wash more frequently, lose socks more frequently. The interns could have digressed at this point onto whether ‘tis nobler to lose a sock occasionally or have smelly socks, but fortunately for us they moved on to address drying technique. The group thought those drying socks on lines in windy areas may be more prone to losing. Here’s hoping that one of them goes back to university and suggests scientific study comparing average rate of sock loss between Wellington and everywhere else in New Zealand. It wouldn’t be the oddest study out there, after all.
Variable four: sock characteristics
Factors include what size your socks are and what colour they are. Firstly, the group thought that those with smaller feet would be more likely to lose socks, as smaller items are generally easier to lose (keys, anyone?). Unfortunately, they were unable to quickly check this hypothesis amongst themselves as it turns out that they all have awfully average-sized feet. Secondly, if your socks are similarly-coloured to the background in which you remove them, you may be more likely to lose them. Particularly if, for example, you take off your photo-realistic grass socks while walking on a field.
Variable five: household residents
If you have small children, teenagers or dogs, let’s face it: you’re just going to be more likely to lose socks. If it’s small children or teenagers, just write those socks off now. If you have a canine friend in residence, there’s many, many articles online of what to do if your dog swallows a sock (aka very expensive sock retrieval), along with plenty of advice on how to prevent socks from going missing via this route. The latter, our interns hypothesised, may have been helpful to the owners of the Great Dane who swallowed 43.5 socks.
Sock loss prevention and mitigation
Key variables identified, we asked our interns to discuss solutions that could prevent or mitigate sock loss. At this point, they definitely demonstrated just how creative they could be, with suggestions including:
- Chameleon socks that change design so they match whatever other sock you are wearing.
- Adding GPS trackers to socks.
- Attaching socks together with a magnet – the implications for your washing machine are unknown.
- Let humans evolve into one-footed beings, so that you never need a pair of socks. We may just have to wait a couple of tens of millions of years for evolution on that one, though – and even then, evolution might not prioritise sock loss as necessitating one foot.
One of their more cunning solutions, perhaps demonstrating some understanding of psychological engineering, was to not in fact attempt to control sock loss in anyway – rather to change the narrative, so that odd socks are perceived as “lucky”. After all, if it worked for bird poop, surely it can work for socks?
Their last solution – which we’re a massive fan of during these hot summer days – is for everyone to migrate to the beach, thus eliminating the need for socks altogether.
Many thanks to our 2019 T+T Summer Interns for their input into this article. We wish them all the best back for their studies this year.
Another storm has damaged roads and trapped tourists in Fiordland so for this week's AAE, we ask Engineering Geologist Shamus Wallace:
Why is Fiordland so wet and why is Milford Sound one of the wettest places in the world?
A: Orographic Rainfall causing the Foehn effect.
This occurs because New Zealand is located in a part of the world that has a predominantly westerly weather pattern (air flows from west to east), is surrounded by water and has a relatively high and continuous mountain range - the Southern Alps - that creates a ‘barrier’.
Warm air from Australia and the tropics travels across the Tasman Sea, sucking up moisture as it goes. When that air flows into the Southern Alps, it is lifted up and over the Alps. As the Alps are relatively continuous, the air can’t go around as easily as it might if the South Island was smaller landmass. The rising air cools and the moisture condenses and falls as rain. Fiordland is usually the meteorological first port of call, so more moisture falls there, before the weather moves east (often the rainfall moves northeasterly up the west side of the Southern Alps). Once the moisture has fallen, the air now on the eastern side of the Alps, descends again - faster than it when it rose - which causes warm, dry (and windy) conditions in the eastern part of the South Island, while the west is being drenched.
Outside of tropical regions, Milford Sound is one of the wettest places in the world because of its unique conditions. In particular, this is because of the size of the Southern Alps, and the barrier they create to allowing prevailing weather systems to move on, as they might in other locations. Many other land masses have a similar (but less dramatic) pattern, e.g. the north and east of the Hawaiian Islands are wetter than the south and west, as the Hawaiian chain sits in an easterly weather pattern – the Trade Winds). Northwestern states in the US have a similar climate, with predominantly westerly weather flow/patterns bringing moisture-laden air off the Pacific. This then being stopped by the Cascade Mountains, with high rainfall occurring in coastal Washington and Oregon, and even down to northern California, and eastern areas being significantly drier.
February 29th - a “phantom date” that shows up every four years.
Adding this extra day at the end of February in years that are multiples of four helps sync up our Gregorian calendar of 365 days with the solar year of 365.2422 days. Leap day and leap year do seem a bit odd, but without it, our calendar would slip relative to the seasons.
With leap day a month from today we thought we’d switch up this week’s “Ask A…” segment, relying on the technical expertise of Siobhan Starck, a Tonkin + Taylor payroll specialist to answer this leap day themed question:
Q: If you're on salary do you get paid for the extra day in February this year, Leap Year?
A: Monthly Salaries are paid using a calculation of your Annual Salary divided by 12 months. This gives you your monthly gross salary.
Yes, there is an extra day in February this year. However, based on the divisor of 12 your monthly gross paid to you remains the same.
If you are paid by the hour and work Saturday the 29th of February, of course, you will be paid for that – likewise, if you are entitled to overtime.
Q: Why is there a black market for sand? Is there one in NZ and will it become a problem?
T+T's Chief Coastal Engineer Richard Reinen-Hamill has an answer:
A: The black market for sand is driven by construction and land reclamation. However, with sand, not all sand is suitable.
For example, you would think sand for concrete in construction projects in the Middle East would be easy and cheap – you would just use sand from the Sahara Desert, right? Unfortunately Sahara sand
is too smooth and fine-grained and so it has to be imported from further afield.
It’s “suitable sand” that’s increasingly in demand and has become a valuable commodity.
There is a global black market for construction materials to build at a lower cost or to increase construction profits. The international sand and gravel market in the US and UK alone is in the order of $10 billion (USD) and markets such as the Middle East, India and China are all increasing demand for construction aggregate (gravel, sand and rock material used for construction).
In New Zealand, the aggregate market is more regulated and controlled and distance to market from international sources to New Zealand reduces the likelihood of importing bulk materials such as sand.
When Tonkin + Taylor conducted sand source investigations for the beach replenishment of Wellington’s Oriental Bay (in the early 2000s) we were offered beautiful white sand from Western Australia at a low cost, but due to mana whenua concerns and biosecurity risks, we sourced rock and crushed it into sand from a cliff near Nelson.
Q: If you were to fly to Fiji for the Christmas holidays, how many trees would you have to plant to offset your carbon emissions?
Sustainability Engineer Kate Boylan, with help from Environmental Consultants Roger MacGibbon and Kate Draper, has an answer:
Firstly, it feels like my duty to say, that offsetting your emissions is great, but reducing your emissions is the best! So, flying to Fiji (or anywhere) less regularly would be the best thing to do. However, your bags are packed and, being the good human you are, you would like to offset the negative impacts of your holiday flight. Carbon offset calculating websites are becoming popular, but we’ll use good old distances and emissions factors here.
To calculate the emissions, we use an ‘emissions factor’ which allows us to estimate emissions from a unit of activity data (e.g. litres of fuel used). In New Zealand, the Ministry for the Environment (MfE) provides emissions factors for most activities. Many human activities produce multiple Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) at once, however, to allow for meaningful comparisons, we commonly express GHG emissions as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e).
Given you are just one person on the plane taking up just one seat, you are only responsible for a small portion of the flight’s overall emissions. If you are in an economy seat, you are responsible for fewer emissions than those in business or first class, purely because you take up less space.
The flight to Fiji, according to Google, is 2160 km. Assuming you can drag yourself away from the beautiful white sand beaches at the end of your stay, a return trip is therefore 4320 km. Because these flights are less than 3700 km (each way), it is considered short-haul. The emissions factor provided by MfE for an average passenger on a short-haul flight is 0.162 kg CO2-e/passenger.km, including Radiative Forcing Factors (where Radiative forcing factors help account for the wider climate effects of aviation, including water vapour and indirect GHGs (MfE, 2019)).
Therefore the emissions are the total flight distance multiplied by our emissions factor; 4320 km x 0.162 kg CO2-e/passenger.km = 701 kg CO2-e.
MfE also sets out standard ‘sequestration’ rate (carbon sucking up ability) emission factors for some of our common forestry carbon sinks. Planted forests can remove 33,807 kg CO2-e per hectare, whereas naturally regenerating forest can remove 5,097 kg CO2-e per hectare.
So, to offset your Fiji holiday flight emissions of 701 kg CO2e, we would need to plant 207 m2 of planted forest, or regenerate 1376 m2 of natural forest. Let's assume you’re looking to plant some fast-growing trees (e.g. radiata pine), where standard forestry spacing is initially around 1000 stems per hectare.
You would, therefore, need to plant 21 trees to offset your return holiday flights to Fiji.
If you are interested in some further reading, check out the MfE measuring emissions resources online, or for more information on specific sequestration rates see the Carbon Look-up Tables for Forestry in the ETS.
Kate (with help from Roger MacGibbon & Kate Draper)
What’s not to love about the great Kiwi outdoors? Cool, pristine bush, magical vistas and crystal clear waters await those of us who love to roam. But just how safe is it to drink straight from our streams and rivers? We asked one of T+T’s hydrogeologists, Dr Jeremy Bennett.
A: Water, water, everywhere – but which drops can we drink? It depends – water has a ‘memory’ of where it has been, or more specifically, what it has travelled through. Generally, the closer you are to where the water came from (i.e. the sky), the cleaner the water is likely to be. If you’re up the top of one of our many mountain ranges, then the water in the streams has not travelled that far and won’t have too many ‘bad memories’. As you move down to lower areas, particularly where there are more people or animals, then it is highly likely that the water will be unsafe to drink due to the presence of microbiological contaminants like E. coli and Giardia. When you get sick from these nasties, the vistas are not magical.
The risks of waterborne disease are lower in conservation areas, and many trampers and hikers do drink directly from streams without too much trouble. However, you need to think carefully about where the water is coming from (its catchment). Are there farms or wild animals upstream of your location, or is the area often used by people? Even in the most pristine bush environment, there could be something just around the corner which will make the stream water unsafe to drink without treatment (dead possums are a common one). The Department of Conservation recommends that you boil water if you have any doubts about its quality and Wilderness Magazine has some good tips on collecting water during a tramp.
Q: How were the pink and white formations at Ōrākei Kōrako formed?
Senior Engineering Geologist Kevin Hind has an answer:
A: The light pink/white formation you see in the centre-right of the image is a ‘sinter terrace’. You may have heard of the famous pink and white terraces, which were formed in a similar fashion. These terraces form when warm spring water rises up through the earth’s crust. This water becomes enriched with minerals such as silica and chloride as it flows through the surrounding rock. As the water reaches the earth’s surface it cools. This cooling results in the minerals solidifying creating the terrace-like structure. The bright orange and brown are the result of bacteria and microbes thriving in the warm spring waters.
With summer almost upon us and tens of thousands of people already heading for the beach, we asked T+T Coastal Geomorphologist Eddie Beetham:
Q: How do you spot a rip current and what causes them?
A: An area of low wave height and limited breaking located next to an area of larger breaking waves will likely be a rip. A danger of rips is that low energy sections of beach are often more inviting for bathers than a section with breaking waves. Always watch the beach for a few minutes to identify rips before entering the water and swim between the flags.
Rip currents form when waves break on irregular sandbars spaced along the beach. This forces an offshore current to develop between sandbars, as wave energy piling up at the coast is released. The process of wave breaking creates a local area of elevated water level called ‘wave setup’ landward of the breakpoint.
If smaller waves are breaking at a neighbouring section of the beach, a setup differential is established and this drives an alongshore current from areas of high setup (where waves break) to areas of low setup (small wave locations). Setup driven currents converge in lower energy locations between sections of wave breaking and form a seaward directed rip current. The velocity of a rip current typically increases with larger waves and high-speed rips can erode a channel between sandbars that enhances the development of a rip cell.
Q: What happened to all of the debris (rocks/dirt etc) from the Kaikōura Earthquake landslides? Where did you put it after it was taken away? Is it used for other work somewhere? Where does all of the stuff that’s taken out of tunnels go too – like the Waterview Tunnel while Alice was boring the holes?
A: This is a key part of what engineers do – we work with the materials we are given, to use them in the most sustainable, practical ways. Where possible engineers will always try and reuse, recycle or repurpose local material from landslides and major excavations.
These two projects, in particular, dealt with almost unprecedented amounts of soil and rock.
Our Engineering Geologist Nick Peters and Geotechnical Engineer Peter Millar provide their answers below.
The bulk of the material from Waterview was used to backfill the Wiri Quarry in preparation for an industrial subdivision on the site.
The material that was excavated by Alice (the tunnel boring machine) resulted in a wet slurry, which required substantial drying and conditioning before it could be compacted as engineered fill. The basalt rock that was excavated from the northern end of the tunnel was used for a range of applications including coastal and road engineering following crushing and processing
- Peter Millar
Kaikōura Earthquake Landslide
The landslides that occurred as a result of the Kaikōura Earthquake in November 2016 inundated SH1 and the Main North Line both north and south of Kaikōura. The volume of landslide material generated by these landslides was many hundreds of thousands of m3. Following the earthquake, the North Canterbury Transport Infrastructure Project (NCTIR) Alliance cleared the landslide material from the road and rail and implemented solutions to allow the transport corridor to be reopened.
Although much of the material was stockpiled, the landslide material was also used in a number of ways, including:
- As fill along sections of SH1 where the road was to be realigned
- Forming small bunds and stopbanks
- To create laydown areas for plant and machinery and other areas like helicopter landing pads
- Some of the trees that came down in the landslides were extracted and made available to local people, for example for carving
Other landslide debris material was stockpiled because it contained organics (i.e. bushes and trees etc) or was too wet to use – this was in part, due to helicopter sluicing that was undertaken to remove unstable material from the slope faces.
- Nick Peters
This week we're switching things up and instead of Asking an Engineer, we're Asking an Ecologist!
New Zealand lizards are unusual in that only one, the egg-laying skink which lives near rock pools at the coast, lay eggs. The others are viviparous – they give birth to live young. Vivipary is thought to be an adaptation to New Zealand’s cooling climate during the ice ages. As lizards are ectotherms (do not generate their own heat but need to absorb it from their surroundings), staying within a warm mother ensures the survival of young.
Due to their viviparous nature, native lizards have fewer young than their egg-laying overseas cousins, generally two for geckos and between two and seven for skinks. This is in contrast to the introduced plague skink from much warmer Australia that can lay up to 80 eggs!
Many of our lizard species survive in cold climatic conditions, including alpine environments.
What are the weird holes that you see in the side or top of hills, for example in the Port Hills in Christchurch?
Great question! The answer is that the terrain up in the Port Hills is made up of Loess (rhymes with purse). Loess is composed of wind-blown dust or silt that has been loosely compacted. Most areas of loess were likely formed during glacial periods where there was very little vegetation. Because the build-up of dust/silt is not very well compacted, the loess is extremely prone to being eroded or removed from the hillside, particularly in heavy rain.
This can result in tunnels or gullies forming underneath the soil/grass surface - this is called piping. Some of these are large enough to fit a small person - but you should never get in one!
Loess is found widely across the South Island around the Canterbury Plains and on Banks Peninsula. Areas in China and the United States Midwest have loess deposits tens of meters thick!
Rebekah Robertson (Geologist)
Q: Can you please tell me if you can hurry up the pedestrian crossing by pressing the button lots of times to tell the machine there are lots of people waiting? I have this terrible feeling that you can’t and that’s an urban myth.
A: Hi Trent,
Unfortunately not. Pushing the button more than once doesn’t make any difference to the lights at a pedestrian crossing. This is because the lights are programmed in a specific sequence made up of a number of phases. When you push the button the pedestrian phase is called, meaning the pedestrian light will turn green next time it appears in a phase in the sequence. However, once a phase is called pushing the button again doesn’t do anything because the call has already been made.
Q: Obviously it's more expensive to Uber than to Bus but if your only concern was sustainability, would it be better to Uber to travel to work in an electric car or ride in a fossil fuel-powered bus?
A: Hi Marie,
That’s a great question, thank you for sending it through. Our Sustainability Engineer, Kate Boylan has an answer:
We believe that despite the emissions that our diesel bus fleets emit, they are the more sustainable option. The more people we have on each bus, the less emissions there are per person when that is split evenly. Also, given a standard bus can take around 50 passengers, that’s around 50 cars that are not travelling on the same roads. Even if they are electric or hybrid cars; fewer cars means less congestion, which would make it easier for our buses and public transport vehicles to get around. Less congestion also means that the buses have to stop and start again less often, which saves on fuel, and therefore emissions. Less congestion also means that everyone travelling would save time, and we all know that time is precious, and time is money.
Fewer individual cars on the road saves space. If everyone used a bus, train, or active modes of transport to commute, we would need less road space overall. Just Google image ‘road space cars vs bus’ for some visual examples of this. We would also need less space to be used for car parking at workplaces, this would save you or your company money, as that space could be utilised for something far more useful.
However, vehicles on roads pollute more than just fuel emissions. Vehicles often pollute rubber and brake pad particles to the surrounding environment of roads. Stormwater run-off from our roads flows directly out to sea with these contaminant particles in tow. Buses also contribute these pollutants, however, as we’ve seen visually above, fewer buses are required to transport the same amount of people. Fewer individual cars on the road could also reduce the wear and tear on the road. Currently, high-traffic roads need resealing every seven years. If there was far less traffic on these roads, they could be replaced less often. This would require fewer materials and construction works, therefore a dramatic saving in construction emissions and embodied resource emissions.
As a fare-paying passenger of your local public transport system, you are supporting your local council or transport body. This revenue can help increase the investment in more efficient and better public transport vehicles and overall systems. After all, every dollar you spend is a vote for what you want to see in the world. Our councils are already starting to look into Electric and Hydrogen fuel buses, so they could be cleaner than your Uber in the near future.
Lastly, from a high-level sustainability perspective, buses and public transport represent changing people’s habits to a more sharing and circular economy. Instead of owning cars, electric or otherwise, could we hire them as we need them?
We hope that answers your question - see you on the bus!
Q: How come the Japan vs Scotland game at the Rugby World Cup was able to go ahead at Nissan Stadium in Yokohama, despite the massive floods caused by Super Typhoon Hagibis?
A: Hi Steve! It comes down to some pretty nifty engineering. The stadium is built on massive pillars that lift it above the flood level of the river. You might remember seeing that the adjacent Shin-Yokohama Park was totally awash, even while the pool game was on. The Park acts as a large flood retarding, or storage basin for the Tsurumi River, and, during a flood, overflows into the Park as it did during Hagibis. After the flood a drainage gate feeds water from the Park back into the river. Result? One flood-beating stadium - so the players at Yokohama stadium get to keep their feet dry!
Q: After reading about how raw sewerage leaked into Wellington Harbour last week when the stormwater drains became blocked by a fat berg, I started wondering about whether peeing in the shower could contaminate our harbours and sea life.
I occasionally pee in the shower – I suspect lots of people do but I’m quite happy to put up my hand and admit to it. But now I’m wondering whether my peed-in shower water goes down the stormwater drains and out to sea untreated?
I’d really like to know, from one of your engineers, whether I should continue to pee in the shower or not?
John (not my real name)
A: Hi John,
Fantastic question! Assuming your house has been plumbed correctly, your shower water (and shower pee) will make its way into the same sewer system as the flush from your toilet. Once your pee has journeyed down the sewer line, it will be treated and made safe to return to the environment.
As I mentioned above, this is all assuming your house is plumbed correctly. In some cases, wastewater is finding its way into the stormwater network, which ends up in the rivers and beaches that we swim in and our fish life live in.
Tonkin + Taylor is working with local councils around the country to track down and resolve these types of issues. I encourage you to ask your local council about the water quality at your swimming beaches or check out websites like Auckland’s www.safeswim.org.nz. Safeswim helps keep people informed about public health risks at bathing beaches using a live and forecasted safety rating.
Now, back to the pee. The shower could well be the best location for your pee! By peeing in the shower you are actually conserving the water that would have been used on a toilet flush. As to whether you should pee in the shower or not, if you are confident your plumbing and sewer is in good shape, then I don’t see any reason to change!
- Ben Perry, Water Engineer
Q: Dear Engineers
I have been following Gareth and Jo Morgan’s motorcycle tour through Eastern Europe on Facebook – it’s quite interesting. I now have a question for your geologists, the Morgans are in Russia and travelling in an area 30 metres below sea level, where does the water from streams and rivers run to when you’re that far below sea level? It can’t run uphill to the sea, can it?
A: We asked hydrogeologist (groundwater scientist), Dr Jeremy Bennett to respond.
“Great question, Peter! Water cannot run uphill… or can it?
The answer to your question is hinted at in the salty soil of Jo Morgan's Facebook post. The Caspian Sea does not have any natural outlet so the only way is up – evaporation! As the water evaporates, the concentration of minerals gets higher – this is one reason that the Caspian Sea and surrounding area is so salty. A similar process is used in our own backyard to produce table salt at Lake Grassmere near Blenheim. Other places where water evaporates instead of flowing to the ocean (endorheic basins for those who like big words) include Lake Eyre in Australia and the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, where fellow Southlander, Burt Munro set the under-1000cc speed record in 1967”
Q: Hi, I have just moved into a place with a swimming pool and am getting quite upset because I keep finding drowned honey bees, bumble bees, worms and skinks in it. Also the occasional German wasp - but who cares about them, right? Is there a way I can prevent this? Would a cover work? And what attracts them to it? Any advice would be much appreciated, it’s so upsetting to see dead bees.
Yours sincerely - Jennifer (Takapuna)
A: Hi Jennifer,
It’s a question that often pops up during summer and we've asked our ecologists to help you with it. Herpetologist (lizard expert) Dr Matt Baber and entomologist (insect expert) Dr Briar Taylor-Smith explain the issues below.
In most of urban Auckland (including Takapuna) there are two species of skink: native copper skinks (Oligosoma aeneum) and the introduced Australian plague skinks (Lampropholis delicata). Copper skinks are nocturnal and don’t move far from the bush and rocks in which they hide away. On the other hand, plague skinks – which are named so because they are found in very high numbers – are active during the day running about on driveways and other open spaces, and are therefore more likely to become trapped in pools.
Bees need water for drinking, diluting their food and for hive ‘air-conditioning’. They like reliable water sources, so once a colony has decided that it likes your pool, the workers will keep coming back for more. In natural settings, such as streams and lakes, there are places for small animals to stand and drink. The problem with swimming pools is that water doesn’t come all the way to the top, so they have nowhere to stand and if they do fall in, they have no way to escape.
You can help out flying insects by floating things in your pool, such as corks, sticks or kick boards, which will provide a platform for drinking and a gentle slope that will allow them to climb to safety if they do fall in. However, to save lizards and worms (which tend to sink to the bottom), it’s best to invest in a pool cover.
You can create an alternative water source for bees and lizards by placing pebbles in a shallow container. Fill it with water leaving only the tops of the pebbles exposed to provide a safe landing spot for bees. Keep the container in a shady spot in your garden and top it up regularly, especially in hot weather.
Hopefully the bees will find and begin to prefer that as a water source quite quickly and you won’t find as many of our precious critters submerged in the pool.
Q: I’m a big fan of Mid-century Modern/Palm Springs architecture... and especially love the stone walls that feature on the more expensive homes built in that style in the 1960s and 70s.
There is a particularly spectacular one on St Johns Rd in Auckland - it is unusually colourful. Would one of your geologists know why it is so different to the other ones around Auckland? - Rachel, Mission Bay.
Q: Can wind seriously blow a building over?
- Anna, Lower Hutt
A: That’s a really good question, thanks Anna. Alex Vink, Structural Engineer has an answer!
In a word, yes wind can absolutely blow buildings over. What’s really interesting is all the ways wind can cause structures to fail.
Wind is mainly caused by the rotation of the earth, which causes the air in the earth’s atmosphere to move. When the wind blows, structures like buildings and bridges obstruct the air flow. This causes the air to flow around the obstruction and generates a pressure or drag on the obstruction. Engineers need to design their buildings and bridges to make sure that they can withstand this pressure.
In a storm, the air particles can move very quickly. This can generate large pressures and drag on buildings. If these buildings and their foundations have not been designed to be strong enough to withstand these large forces that are generated, they can topple or collapse. This happens quite commonly in the Pacific Islands during cyclones.
It’s not just large wind pressures that can make buildings or bridges collapse. During the life of a bridge, it will experience a lot of changing wind with different pressures. It may only experience a couple of really big storms, but lots of small gusts of wind can cause the bridge to fail due to a phenomenon called fatigue. Some materials, like steel, get weaker when they are exposed to many cycles of loading (like changing gentle breezes) and when they experience enough cycles, they can break. This is a bit like bending a paper clip back and forward until it breaks.
Perhaps the most famous example of a bridge collapsing due to wind is the First Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. The wind caused the suspension bridge to vibrate excessively without the wind speed increasing because the bridge was not able to absorb all the energy from the vibrations. Eventually these vibrations became too big and the bridge became unstable and collapsed. This phenomenon is called aerodynamic flutter. Engineers need to consider these effects when designing bridges.
If you have a question for one of our engineers, please contact us via email@example.com
Q: If The Wall from the Game of Thrones was built in real life, how deep would the foundations need to be? Would it actually be possible to build it out of ice? NB: The Wall is meant to be 300 miles long, over 700 feet (213m) high, and made of solid ice.
- Grant, Tikitere
A: This is a goodie, thanks Grant. Mark Thomas, Senior Geotechnical Engineer has got the answer!
Mark: "How come I get the question about fictitious magic stuff?!
I know more about soil and rock than I do about ice. I know glaciers get way thicker than that, (~1500m thick) and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are in the order of 2000 to 5000m thick! But they don’t have vertical cliff faces nearly that high.
In order to be strong enough to form a 213m high vertical face, the ice would need to have a theoretical mass strength of at least 2MPa UCS, which doesn’t even take into account defects within the ice. On top of that, Martin Truffer has pointed out that ice doesn’t hold its shape, and I guess that’s where you need a bit of Old Gods magic to keep the whole structure from falling apart.
Building a structural “foundation” for the wall wouldn’t really cut the mustard. You’d really want to dig down and build the wall on solid bedrock. Depending on the strength and fabric of the rock, you might have to dig tens of metres deep to support the steep sides of the wall. Given the size and weight of the wall, you’d probably also induce quite a few localised earthquakes during construction. That could be a problem for nearby masonry castles and forts due to their brittle construction; but less likely to be an issue for a typical wildling hut.
It’s a bit strange that the wall was built out of magic ice. If I was in charge of the wall’s construction, I would have opted for magic rock or magic concrete, which would be much more robust in both a structural sense, and in its resistance to dragons and long summers. Donald Trump, if you’re reading this, give me a call".
- Mark Thomas, Senior Geotechnical Engineer
Q: Why is Ramp 4 out of Waterview SO BIG?!
- Andrea, Meadowbank
A: Thanks Andrea, our roading expert Matt Arcus has the answer on this one for you!
At the Northern end of the Waterview Tunnel, the interchange is made up of a complex set of ramps. Each individual ramp crosses over multiple carriageways but ramp 4 crosses the most carriageways.
In order to cross these carriageways AND meet the required road standards and design criteria, ramp 4 needs to be much taller than the other ramps. And with height comes the need for a bigger supporting structure and extra road length to address the change in height (so that driving down ramp 4 isn’t like being on one of the Big 5 at Rainbow’s End).
The roading standards and design criteria are mostly linked to the design speed of the road. Some of the biggies are:
- Minimum curve radius: how tight you can make the curves - so that the forces keeping you on the road oppose the centrifugal forces trying to throw you off!
- Superelevation: the amount of pavement banking around the horizontal curves to counteract the effect of centrifugal forces acting on the vehicle
- Stopping sight distance: the amount of road you need visible in front of you to identify a hazard, react and then come to a complete stop
- Maximum vertical grade and vertical curve requirements: how steep we can make the road and how much vertical curvature is needed so that we can see over a crest in the road
- Vertical clearance requirements: how much head room we need between crossing carriageways to allow larger vehicles to pass beneath
Another significant part of designing any road is safety. This can add additional constraints to the design, such as making the shoulders wide enough to see around the bends, or safely accommodate a broken down car.
Q: How long will the eruption of the volcano on Kilauea in Hawaii last?
- Paul, Onehunga
A: Good question! One of our resident Volcanologists Alec Wild has got an answer for you!
The short answer is we don’t know! It’s difficult to determine how much magma beneath the volcano is going to be ejected, and over what timeframe, as we cannot directly observe it.
Kīlauea Volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has been erupting on and off since 1983. However, this most recent phase has formed long cracks in the ground called fissures, along the East Rift Zone to the east of the main vent. The rift zone is a thin strip of land that is being separated, allowing magma to travel up and down. Once the magma reaches the surface and forms fissures, it produces fire fountains and lava flows. Of particular note are the fissures that have formed in a residential subdivision, Leilani Estates, resulting in the evacuation of residents and damage to properties and infrastructure.
The lava level from Kīlauea main summit has dropped, which indicates that the lava could be moving along the rift zone. Volcanologists are monitoring the lava level, seismic data and ground deformation to try and predict where the magma is moving and where it might come up to the surface.
This eruption is considered, based on activity and affected area, similar to the 1955 event which occurred in the same rift area, and lasted 3 months. During the 1955 event with lava flowing both north east and south west of what is now Leilani Estates. Although this is similar, we cannot definitively say that this eruption will be of the same duration.
- Alec Wild, Natural Hazards Specialist, MSc Quantitative Volcanic Hazard and Risk Modelling
Q: I have been transfixed by that dramatic, jagged, golden cliff face that features in the British TV programme, Broadchurch. Would one of your engineers kindly explain (in layman's terms) how it was created.
- Shirley, Remuera.
A: Great question, Shirley. Our legendary engineering geologist Kevin Hind was dead keen to answer!
"The steep cliffs of West Bay in Dorset on England’s Southern coast are made of extremely weak and highly erodible sandstone. They originally formed from layers of sand, mud and shell fragments that settled onto the ocean floor sometime between 183 and 174 million years ago.
It took a whopping 860,000 years for the full 43 metre thickness of cliff to develop! The build-up of sedimentary sand layers happened extremely slowly, forming at an average rate of one metre per 20,000 years. All those horizontal layers of sediment are clearly visible in the cliff face - just like they are in the cliffs of Auckland, which formed in a very similar way.
Years of wave erosion has formed the cliff face itself, most of which occurred since about 6,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age, when sea levels stabilised at their current levels.
The corrugated look of the cliffs is caused by two things. Firstly, the geology contains two sets of strong sub-vertical joints, along which cliff collapse generally occurs. This results in tall, flat-faced columns, which stand out from the overall cliff face with recesses between them.
This close up image clearly shows the sub vertical joints in the rock formation, this effect is called ‘buttress and groove’.
Secondly, extensive landslips that occur at the top of the cliff within the soil and weathered rock. These landslips occur on a regular basis along the length of the cliff, giving it that serrated and ‘bread knife’ appearance. This, combined with the rock buttresses, give the cliffs their remarkable corrugated appearance".
Unique geology and erosion combined to create the ‘bread knife’ appearance of the cliffs along the Jurassic Coast.
So what about that golden yellow colour?
"That’s actually the result of an oxidation process enhanced by beautiful cinematography. The rock is naturally a grey-blue colour, but when exposed to oxygen, the mineral ‘pyrite’ (also known as ‘fool’s gold’) changes to yellow limonite – snap – there’s your yellow stone".
- Kevin Hind, Senior Engineering Geologist
Q: Why doesn’t my bike trigger some traffic lights?
Sometimes I have to wait ages for the lights to change when there’s no traffic - Linda, Tauranga.
There are a number of reasons why this could happen, however, the most common is that your bike might not contain enough metal to be detected by the electro-magnetic sensor loops used by the traffic lights system.
You can usually see these sensor loops at the lights, in the pavement as dark rectangular lines near the stop line of each traffic lane.
Other reasons why your bike may not trigger the traffic lights include that you haven’t ridden over or near enough to the sensor loop, or the sensor loop’s sensitivity setting is not high enough.
To reduce this issue in New Zealand, bicycle-specific sensor loops are sometimes installed where bikes at traffic lights are more common. Some cities also have cycle stop boxes (see photo below) at intersections, with painted symbols to show where the cyclist should stop for detection - Transport Engineer, Jeremy O’Neill.